The borough is finely situated in the Wyoming Valley among the rich anthracite coalfields of eastern Pennsylvania, and its inhabitants are chiefly engaged in the coal industry; in 1906 and 1907 (when it shipped 24,081,4 9 1 tons) Luzerne county shipped more anthracite coal than any other county in Pennsylvania.
Two brothers, Abijah and John Smith, originally of Derby, Conn., settled in Plymouth in 1806 and began shipping coal thence in 1808; this was the beginning of the anthracite coal trade in the United States.
Lignite is also mined at Bacu Abis, near Gonnesa, and Anthracite in small quantities near Seui.
Charcoal, coke or anthracite coal are the fuels generally used in slow combustion heating stoves.
Italy has only unimportant lignite and anthracite mines, but water power is abundant and has been largely applied to industry, especially in generating electricity.
This area is divided into nearly two equal parts - one, the Lei river coal-fields, yielding anthracite, and the other the Siang river coal-fields, yielding bituminous coal.
M., and comprise a valuable stock of excellent anthracite and coal, together with iron-mines.
Its chief industry is the mining of anthracite coal; the principal establishments are railway repair shops, which in 1905 gave employment to 48.9% of all wage-earners engaged in manufacturing.
Its chief industry is the mining of anthracite coal at several collieries in the vicinity; and at Fountain Springs, 1 m.
South-east, is a state hospital for injured persons of the Anthracite Coal Region of Pennsylvania, opened in 1883.
The tanned complexion, that amorphous crag-like face; the dull black eyes under the precipice of brows, like dull anthracite furnaces, needing only to be blown; the mastiff mouth accurately closed; I have not traced so much of silent Berserkir rage that I remember in any man."
MOLLY MAGUIRES, an Irish American secret society which maintained numerous branches in the anthracite coal regions of Pennsylvania, U.S.A., from 1854 to 1877, and perhaps later.
In the valley of the Bow river, alongside the Canadian Pacific railway, valuable beds of anthracite coal are worked, and the coal is carried by railway as far east as Winnipeg.
Anthracite coal is found in the neighbourhood.
In this process the purified ore is mixed with about one-fifth of its weight of a noncaking coal or anthracite smalls, the mixture being moistened to prevent it from being blown off by the draught, and is then fused on the sole of a reverberatory furnace for five or six hours.
Pittston is in the midst of the richest anthracite coal region of the state, and fire-clay also abounds in the vicinity.
Anthracite is mined in the St Lucia Bay district, and bituminous coal is found in the Nqutu and Kyudeni hills.
This method originated in the Pennsylvania anthracite mines in 1887, but has been employed in recent years on a large scale in Silesia, Westphalia and other European coalfields.
A certain proportion of soda ash (carbonate of soda) is also used in some works in sheet-glass mixtures, while " decolorizers " (substances intended to remove or reduce the colour of the glass) are also sometimes added, those most generally used being manganese dioxide and arsenic. Another essential ingredient of all glass mixtures containing sulphate of soda is some form of carbon, which is added either as coke, charcoal or anthracite coal; the carbon so introduced aids the reducing substances contained in the atmosphere of the furnace in bringing about the reduction of the sulphate of soda to a condition in which it combines more readily with the silicic acid of the sand.
Pure sand, a pure form of carbonate of lime, and sulphate of soda, with the addition of a suitable proportion of carbon in the form of coke, charcoal or anthracite coal.
Tamaqua is in a rich anthracite coal district, and coal-mining is its chief industry..
The first settlement here was made in 1799 and anthracite coal was discovered in 1817.
Both anthracite and bituminous deposits have been found.
Anthracite is from the Greek a vepa, and the term lithanthrax, stone coal, still survives, with the same meaning, in the Italian litantrace.
It varies in colour from a light brown in the newest lignites to a pure black, often with a bluish or yellowish tint in the more compact anthracite of the older formations.
The streak is black in anthracite, but more or less brown in the softer varieties.
The maximum hardness is from 2.5 to 3 in anthracite and hard bituminous coals, but considerably less in lignites, which are nearly as soft as rotten wood.
The densest anthracite is of ten of a semi-metallic lustre, resembling somewhat that of graphite.
Some lignites are, however, quite as brilliant as anthracite; cannel and jet may be turned in the lathe, and are susceptible of taking a brilliant polish.
The specific gravity is highest in anthracite and lowest in lignite, bituminous coals giving intermediate values (see Table I.).
Examples of analyses treated in this manner are furnished in the last column of Table I., from which it will be seen that the nearest approach to pure carbon is furnished by anthracite, which contains above 90%.
The proportion of carbon in bituminous coals may vary from 80 to 90% the amount being highest as they approach the character of anthracite, and least in those which are nearest to lignites.
Thus the semi 'anthracitic coals of South Wales are known as " dry " or " steam coals," being especially valuable for use in marine steam-boilers, as they burn more readily than anthracite and with a larger amount of flame, while giving out a great amount of heat, and practically without producing smoke.
There are, however, several striking exceptions, as for instance in the anthracite from Peru, given in Table I., which contains more than io% of sulphur, and yields but a very small percentage of a white ash.
An anthracite occurring in connexion with the old volcanic rocks of Arthur's Seat,Edinburgh, which contains a large amount of sulphur in proportion to the Caking coals.
In some instances the coal seams may be changed as a whole, as for instance in South Wales, where the coking coals of the eastern side of the basin pass through the state of dry steam coal in the centre, and become anthracite in the western side.
In some anthracite collieries in America the small coal or culm and other waste are washed into the exhausted workings by water which gives a compact mass filling the excavation when the water has drained away.
The gases from the bituminous house coals of South Wales are comparatively free from marsh gas, as compared with those from the steam coal and anthracite pits.
It was found that, of the entire volume of occluded gas in an anthracite, only one-third could be expelled at the temperature of boiling water, and that the whole quantity, amounting to 650 cub.
Anthracite coal in Pennsylvania is subjected to breaking between toothed rollers and an elaborate system of screening, before it is fit for sale.
In South Wales a somewhat similar treatment is now adopted in the anthracite districts.
A special work on the Anthracite Coal Industry of the United States, by P. Roberts, was published in 1901.
In the manufacture of calcium carbide in the electric furnace, lime and anthracite of the Manufac- highest possible degree of purity are employed.
In the former, the anthracite and lime are ground and carefully mixed in the right proportions to suit the chemical actions involved.
The coal here is anthracite, as is also that, at Tai-gan-shan, where are found beds of greater value than any in the neighbourhood of Peking.
Geologically the region is made up of Carboniferous limestones, clay slates and sandstones, containing anthracite and coal; of Cretaceous marls, chalk, sandstone and greensands - chalk cliffs, in fact, accompany the Don for 200 m.; and of Miocene limestones and clays.
This district, which comprises the coalmines of Lisichansk and the anthracite mines of Gorodishche, occupies about 110,000 acres on the banks of the Donets river.
Anthracite coal is mined here; there are railway repair and machine-shops; and among the borough's manufactures are hosiery, silk goods, underwear and adding machines.
They are rarely metamorphosed to the point of recrystallization, though locally shales are altered to roofing slates, sandstones are indurated, limestones slightly marblized, and coals, originally bituminous, are changed to anthracite in northern Pennsylvania, and to graphite in Rhode Island.
Two procedures are adopted: (1) graphitization of moulded carbons; (2) graphitization of anthracite en masse.