Anthracite coal is mined here; there are railway repair and machine-shops; and among the borough's manufactures are hosiery, silk goods, underwear and adding machines.
The borough is finely situated in the Wyoming Valley among the rich anthracite coalfields of eastern Pennsylvania, and its inhabitants are chiefly engaged in the coal industry; in 1906 and 1907 (when it shipped 24,081,4 9 1 tons) Luzerne county shipped more anthracite coal than any other county in Pennsylvania.
Lignite is also mined at Bacu Abis, near Gonnesa, and Anthracite in small quantities near Seui.
Charcoal, coke or anthracite coal are the fuels generally used in slow combustion heating stoves.
Types, may be distinguished, and these, with the two extremes of brown coal or lignite and anthracite, form a perfectly continuous series.
Italy has only unimportant lignite and anthracite mines, but water power is abundant and has been largely applied to industry, especially in generating electricity.
This area is divided into nearly two equal parts - one, the Lei river coal-fields, yielding anthracite, and the other the Siang river coal-fields, yielding bituminous coal.
M., and comprise a valuable stock of excellent anthracite and coal, together with iron-mines.
Its chief industry is the mining of anthracite coal; the principal establishments are railway repair shops, which in 1905 gave employment to 48.9% of all wage-earners engaged in manufacturing.
Its chief industry is the mining of anthracite coal at several collieries in the vicinity; and at Fountain Springs, 1 m.
South-east, is a state hospital for injured persons of the Anthracite Coal Region of Pennsylvania, opened in 1883.
MOLLY MAGUIRES, an Irish American secret society which maintained numerous branches in the anthracite coal regions of Pennsylvania, U.S.A., from 1854 to 1877, and perhaps later.
In the valley of the Bow river, alongside the Canadian Pacific railway, valuable beds of anthracite coal are worked, and the coal is carried by railway as far east as Winnipeg.
Anthracite coal is found in the neighbourhood.
In this process the purified ore is mixed with about one-fifth of its weight of a noncaking coal or anthracite smalls, the mixture being moistened to prevent it from being blown off by the draught, and is then fused on the sole of a reverberatory furnace for five or six hours.
Pittston is in the midst of the richest anthracite coal region of the state, and fire-clay also abounds in the vicinity.
Anthracite is mined in the St Lucia Bay district, and bituminous coal is found in the Nqutu and Kyudeni hills.
This method originated in the Pennsylvania anthracite mines in 1887, but has been employed in recent years on a large scale in Silesia, Westphalia and other European coalfields.
A certain proportion of soda ash (carbonate of soda) is also used in some works in sheet-glass mixtures, while " decolorizers " (substances intended to remove or reduce the colour of the glass) are also sometimes added, those most generally used being manganese dioxide and arsenic. Another essential ingredient of all glass mixtures containing sulphate of soda is some form of carbon, which is added either as coke, charcoal or anthracite coal; the carbon so introduced aids the reducing substances contained in the atmosphere of the furnace in bringing about the reduction of the sulphate of soda to a condition in which it combines more readily with the silicic acid of the sand.
Pure sand, a pure form of carbonate of lime, and sulphate of soda, with the addition of a suitable proportion of carbon in the form of coke, charcoal or anthracite coal.
Tamaqua is in a rich anthracite coal district, and coal-mining is its chief industry..
The first settlement here was made in 1799 and anthracite coal was discovered in 1817.
Both anthracite and bituminous deposits have been found.
Anthracite is from the Greek a vepa, and the term lithanthrax, stone coal, still survives, with the same meaning, in the Italian litantrace.
It varies in colour from a light brown in the newest lignites to a pure black, often with a bluish or yellowish tint in the more compact anthracite of the older formations.
The streak is black in anthracite, but more or less brown in the softer varieties.
The maximum hardness is from 2.5 to 3 in anthracite and hard bituminous coals, but considerably less in lignites, which are nearly as soft as rotten wood.
The densest anthracite is of ten of a semi-metallic lustre, resembling somewhat that of graphite.
Some lignites are, however, quite as brilliant as anthracite; cannel and jet may be turned in the lathe, and are susceptible of taking a brilliant polish.
Examples of analyses treated in this manner are furnished in the last column of Table I., from which it will be seen that the nearest approach to pure carbon is furnished by anthracite, which contains above 90%.
The proportion of carbon in bituminous coals may vary from 80 to 90% the amount being highest as they approach the character of anthracite, and least in those which are nearest to lignites.
Thus the semi 'anthracitic coals of South Wales are known as " dry " or " steam coals," being especially valuable for use in marine steam-boilers, as they burn more readily than anthracite and with a larger amount of flame, while giving out a great amount of heat, and practically without producing smoke.
There are, however, several striking exceptions, as for instance in the anthracite from Peru, given in Table I., which contains more than io% of sulphur, and yields but a very small percentage of a white ash.
An anthracite occurring in connexion with the old volcanic rocks of Arthur's Seat,Edinburgh, which contains a large amount of sulphur in proportion to the Caking coals.
In some instances the coal seams may be changed as a whole, as for instance in South Wales, where the coking coals of the eastern side of the basin pass through the state of dry steam coal in the centre, and become anthracite in the western side.
In some anthracite collieries in America the small coal or culm and other waste are washed into the exhausted workings by water which gives a compact mass filling the excavation when the water has drained away.
The gases from the bituminous house coals of South Wales are comparatively free from marsh gas, as compared with those from the steam coal and anthracite pits.
It was found that, of the entire volume of occluded gas in an anthracite, only one-third could be expelled at the temperature of boiling water, and that the whole quantity, amounting to 650 cub.
Anthracite coal in Pennsylvania is subjected to breaking between toothed rollers and an elaborate system of screening, before it is fit for sale.
In South Wales a somewhat similar treatment is now adopted in the anthracite districts.
A special work on the Anthracite Coal Industry of the United States, by P. Roberts, was published in 1901.
In the manufacture of calcium carbide in the electric furnace, lime and anthracite of the Manufac- highest possible degree of purity are employed.
In the former, the anthracite and lime are ground and carefully mixed in the right proportions to suit the chemical actions involved.
The coal here is anthracite, as is also that, at Tai-gan-shan, where are found beds of greater value than any in the neighbourhood of Peking.
Geologically the region is made up of Carboniferous limestones, clay slates and sandstones, containing anthracite and coal; of Cretaceous marls, chalk, sandstone and greensands - chalk cliffs, in fact, accompany the Don for 200 m.; and of Miocene limestones and clays.
This district, which comprises the coalmines of Lisichansk and the anthracite mines of Gorodishche, occupies about 110,000 acres on the banks of the Donets river.
They are rarely metamorphosed to the point of recrystallization, though locally shales are altered to roofing slates, sandstones are indurated, limestones slightly marblized, and coals, originally bituminous, are changed to anthracite in northern Pennsylvania, and to graphite in Rhode Island.
Two procedures are adopted: (1) graphitization of moulded carbons; (2) graphitization of anthracite en masse.
In graphitizing en masse large lumps of anthracite are treated in the electric furnace.
Scranton is the largest city in the great anthracite-coal region of the United States; and 17,525,995 long tons of coal were produced within the county in 1905.
Lying within the rich agricultural region of the Lebanon and Schuylkill valleys and near vast fields of anthracite coal and iron ore, Reading possesses unusual business and industrial advantages.
In 1820 the first cargo of anthracite coal was shipped to Philadelphia.
From 1830 the increase in the production was very rapid, and in 1841 the annual shipments from the Pennsylvania anthracite region had nearly reached 1,000,000 tons, the output of iron at that time being estimated at about 300,000 tons.
The shipments of anthracite amounted to nearly 3,500,000 ~ L1~ tons; those of Cumberland or semi-bituminous coal were Industries about 200,000 tons.
The leading products, as reported by the Geological Survey for 1907, were as follows: coal, $614,798,898 (85,604,312 tons of anthracite coal, 394.759,112 of bituminous); petroleum, $120,106,749; natural gas, ~54,222,399; iron ore, $131,996,147 (pig iron, $529,958,000); copper, refined, $173,799,300; gold, coinage value, $90,435,700; buii~..ing-stone, $71,105,805; silver, commercial value, ~272OO,700: lean.
Coal exists in the United States in large quantity in each of its important varieties: anthracite, or hard coal; bituminous, or soft coal; and lignite; and in various intermediate and c al special grades.
Geologically the anthracite and bituminous coals mainly belong to the same formation, the Carboniferous, and this is especially true of the better qualities; though it is stated by the United States Geological Survey that the geQlogic age of the coal beds ranges from Carboniferous in the Appalachian and Mississippi Valley provinces to Miocene (Tertiary) on the Pacific coast, and that the quality of the coal varies only to a very uncertain degree with the geologic age.
M., of which 250,531 are credited to anthracite and bituminous, 97,636 to sub-bituminous and 148,609 to lignite; (2) total original coal supply of the country, 3,076,204,000,000 short tons, including 21,000,000,000 tons of anthracite in Pennsylvania, and small amounts elsewhere (semi-anthracite and semi-bituminous), 650,157,000,000 tons of sub-bituminous and 743,590,000,000 tons of lignite; (3) easily accessible coal still available, 1,992,979,000,000 tons; (4) available coal accessible with difficulty, f,153,225,000,000 tons.
The total production of coal from 1814 (the year in which anthracite was first mined in Pennsylvania) to 1908 amounted to 7,280,940,265 tons, which represented an exhaustionadding 50% for waste in mining and preparationof 11,870,049,900, or four-tenths of I% of the supposed original supply.
Pennsylvania (117,179,527 tons of bituminous and 83,268,754 of anthracite), Illinois (47,659,690), West Virginia (41,897,843), Ohio (26,270,639), Indiana (12,314,890) and Alabama (11,604,593) were the states of greatest production.
Up to 1870 there was more anthracite mined in Pennsylvania than bituminous in the whole country, but since that year the production of the latter has become vastly the greater, the totals in 1907, in which year each stood at its maximum, being 83,268,754 and 332,573,944 tons respectively.
Inasmuch as the present production is not considered locally and with more or less justiceas at all indicative of the wealth in coal of the respective states, it may be said that according to estimates of the Geological Survey the following states are credited with the deposits indicated of true bituminous coal, including local admixtures of anthracite, the figures being millions of short tons: