By fusing two nuclei we obtain the formula of naphthalene, C 1 oH 8; by fusing three, the hydrocarbons anthracene and phenanthrene, C14H10; by fusing four, chrysene, C18H12, and possibly pyrene, C16H1n; by fusing five, picene, C22 H 14.
But it must be here understood that each member of these condensed nuclei need not necessarily be identical in structure; thus the central nuclei in anthracene and phenanthrene differ very considerably from the terminal nuclei (see below, Condensed Nuclei).
Methane, tetrachlormethane, &c., to yield aromatic compounds when subjected to a high temperature, the so-called pyrogenetic reactions (from Greek 7rup, fire, and - yon, fco, I produce); the predominance of benzenoid, and related compounds-naphthalene, anthracene, phenanthrene, &c.-in coal-tar is probably to be associated with similar pyrocondensations.
Thomsen then investigated heats of combustion of various benzenoid hydrocarbons - benzene, naphthalene, anthracene, phenanthrene, &c. - in the crystallized state.
The next members are the -isomers anthracene and phenanthrene, C14H,0, formed from three benzene nuclei.
Here we shall only discuss the structure of these compounds in the light of the modern benzene theories; reference should be made to the articles Naphthalene, Anthracene and Phenanthrene for syntheses, decompositions, &c.
Benzenoid rings as represented by the symbols: - Anthracene Phenanthrene In both cases the medial ring is most readily attacked; and various formulae have been devised which are claimed by their authors to represent this and other facts.
According to Armstrong, anthracene behaves unsymmetrically towards substituents, and hence one lateral ring differs from the other; he represents the molecule as consisting of one centric ring, the remaining medial and lateral ring being ethenoid.
Similarly a CH group may be replaced by a nitrogen atom with the production of compounds of similar stability; thus benzene gives pyridine, naphthalene gives quinoline and isoquinoline; anthracene gives acridine and a and 3 anthrapyridines.
A-pyrone condenses with the benzene ring to form coumarin and isocoumarin; benzo-'y-pyrone constitutes the nucleus of several vegetable colouring matters (chrysin, fisetin, quercetin, &c., which are derivatives of flavone or phenyl benzo-y-pyrone); dibenzo--ypyrone is known as xanthone; related to this substance are fluorane (and fluorescein), fluorone, fluorime, pyronine, &c. The pyridine ring condenses with the benzene ring to form quinoline and isoquinoline; acridine and phenanthridine are dibenzo-pyridines; naphthalene gives rise to a-and /3-naphthoquinolines and the anthrapyridines; anthracene gives anthraquinoline; while two pyridine nuclei connected by an intermediate benzene nucleus give the phenanthrolines.
Chemie, 24, p. 468) submitted the view that fluorescence was due to the presence of certain " fluorophore " groups; such groupings are the pyrone ring and its congeners, the central rings in anthracene and acridine derivatives, and the paradiazine ring in safranines.
PHENANTHRENE, C14H10, a hydrocarbon isomeric with anthracene, with which it occurs in the fraction of the coal tar distillate boiling between 270°-400° C. It may be separated from the anthracene oil by repeated fractional distillation, followed by fractional crystallization from alcohol (anthracene being the less soluble), and finally purified by oxidizing any residual anthracene with potassium bichromate and sulphuric acid (R.
Schultz, Ann., 1879, 196, p. 35); or the two hydrocarbons may be separated by carbon bisulphide, in which anthracene is insoluble.
It is formed when the vapours of toluene, stilbene, dibenzyl, ortho-ditolyl, or coumarone and benzene are passed through a red-hot tube; by distilling morphine with zinc dust; and, with anthracene, by the action of sodium on ortho-brombenzyl bromide (C. L.
On passing the vapour through red-hot tubes it yields anthracene and toluene.
ANTHRACENE (from the Greek civOpa, coal), C 14 H 10, a hydrocarbon obtained from the fraction of the coal-tar distillate boiling between 270° and 400° C. This high boiling fraction is allowed to stand for some days, when it partially solidifies.
The crude anthracene cake is purified by treatment with the higher pyridine bases, the operation being carried out in large steam-jacketed boilers.
The whole mass dissolves on heating, and the anthracene crystallizes out on cooling.
The crystallized anthracene is then removed by a centrifugal separator and the process of solution in the pyridine bases is repeated.
Finally the anthracene is purified by sublimation.
Many synthetical processes for the preparation of anthracene and its derivatives are known.
White (Ber., 1879, 12, p. 1965) obtained dihydro-anthracene C6..4< B CH2Br +4Na+ BrCH2) C 6 H 4 =4NaBr+C 6 H 4 C6H4.
Anthracene has also been obtained by heating ortho-tolylphenyl ketone with zinc dust C6H4(CH CH =H20+C6H4 I)C6H4.
COC 6 H 6 CH Anthracene crystallizes in colourless monoclinic tables which show a fine blue fluorescence.
Numerous sulphonic acids of anthracene are known, a monosulphonic acid being obtained with dilute sulphuric acid, whilst concentrated sulphuric acid produces mixtures of the anthracene disulphonic acids.
By the action of sodium amalgam on an alcoholic solution of anthracene, an anthracene dihydride, C14H12, is obtained, whilst by the use of stronger reducing agents, such as hydriodic acid and amorphous phosphorus, hydrides of composition C14H16 and C14H24 are produced.
Oxidizing agents convert anthracene into anthraquinone; the production of this substance by oxidizing anthracene in glacial acetic acid solution, with chromic acid, is the usual method employed for the estimation of anthracene.
Vapour baths of iron are used in connexion with boiling anthracene (335°), anthraquinone (368°),sulphur(444°),phosphoruspentasulphide(518°); molten lead may also be used.
ANTHRAQUINONE, C 14 H 8 O 3, an important derivative of anthracene, first prepared in 1834 by A.
It is prepared commercially from anthracene by stirring a sludge of anthracene and water in horizontal cylinders with a mixture of sodium bichromate and caustic soda.
After this treatment, the mixture is run into lead-lined vats and treated with sulphuric acid, steam is blown through the mixture in order to bring it to the boil, and the anthracene is rapidly oxidized to anthraquinone.
C (OH): C 6 H 4; and with hydriodic acid at i so C. or on distillation with zinc dust, the hydrocarbon anthracene, C 14 H 10.
Liebermann in 1868 prepared that substance synthetically from anthracene, but their process was not practicable on a large scale, and it was left to him to patent a method that was commercially valuable.
For naphthalene quinones see Naphthalene; for anthracene quinone see Anthraquinone; and for phenanthrene quinone see Phena Nt H Rene.
It is readily soluble in water, melts at 193° C., and is decomposed at a higher temperature into chromium sesquioxide and oxygen; it is a very powerful oxidizing agent, acting violently on alcohol, converting it into acetaldehyde, and in glacial acetic acid solution converting naphthalene and anthracene into the corresponding quinones.
In practice, the crude anthracene is purified by solution in the higher pyridine bases, after which treatment it is frequently sublimed.
With aromatic hydrocarbons in the presence of anhydrous aluminium chloride, in the cold, there is a large evolution of hydrochloric acid gas, and an aldehyde is formed; at 100° C., on the other hand, anthracene derivatives are produced.
Thus by using benzene, benzaldehyde and anthracene are obtained.
Dewar and Jones suggest that in the latter reaction it is the metallic nickel which is probably the reducing agent effecting the change, since it is only dissolved in any quantity when the anthracene hydrocarbon is produced.
It is obtained from the higher boiling fractions, after separation of naphthalene and anthracene, by fractional distillation, the portion boiling between 290-340° C. being taken.