He was one of the first to point out the existence of certain cellular bodies in these plants which appeared to perform the functions of reproductive organs, and to them the names of antheridia and pistillidia were given.
In these cases we should expect to find some reduced process of fertilization similar to that of Humaria granulata among the ordinary Ascomycetes, where in the absence of the antheridia the female nuclei fuse in pairs.
In Peronospora, Saprolegnia, &c., the ends of the branches swell up into sporangia, which develop zoospores in their interior (zoosporangia), or their contents become oospheres, which may be fertilized by the contents of other branches (antheridia) and so form egg-cases (oogonia).
Sexual reproduction by oogonia and antheridia; asexual reproduction by zoospores or conidia.
Mycelium present, antheridia with antherozoids, oogonium with single oosphere: Monoblepharidaceae.
Mycelium present; antheridia but no antherozoids; oogonia with one or more oospheres: Peronosporaceae, Saprolegniaceae.
Mycelium poorly developed or absent; oogonia and antheridia (without antherozoids) known in some cases; zoospores common: Chytridiaceae.
Fungi with segmental thallus; sexual reproduction sometimes with typical antheridia and oogonia (ascogonia) but usually much reduced.
Monoblepharis has oogonia with single oospheres and antheridia developing a few amoeboid uniciliate antherozoids; these creep to the opening of the oogonium and then swim in.
The Peronosporaceae reproduce themselves sexually by means of antheridia and oogonia as described in Pythium.
Functional male and female organs have been shown to exist in Pyronema and Boudiera; in Lachnea stercorea both ascogonia and antheridia a are present, but the antheridium a1 is non-functional, the ascogonial _s- - (fema l e) nuclei fusing in pairs; /'y' this is also the case' in Humaria /;' h; granulate and Ascobolus furfurs -./ '"aceus, where the antheridium is _ / /, - entirely absent.
Volvox sp., with a, antheridia, and o, oogonia.
The antheridia and oogonia are formed at the nodes of the appendages.
The antheridia are spherical orange-coloured bodies of very complex structure.
The sexual organs - oogonia and antheridia - are borne on special portions of the thallus in cavities known as conceptacles.
The antheridia, which arise in the conceptacular cavity as special cells of branched filaments, are similarly discharged whole, the antherozoids only escaping when the antheridia are clear of the conceptacle.
The antheridia have a similar origin and grouping on the male plant.
The discovery by Brebner of the specific identity of Haplospora globosa and Scaphospora speciosa marks an important step in the advance of our knowledge of the group. Three kinds of reproductive organs are known: first, sporangia, which each give rise to a single tetra-, or multi-nucleate non-motile, probably asexual spore; second, plurilocular sporangia, which are probably antheridia, generating antherozoids; and third, sporangia, which are probably oogonia, giving rise to single uninucleate non-motile oospheres.
Great numbers of antheridia are usually crowded together, when the part is distinguishable by the absence of the usual red colour.
The reproductive organs ultimately produced on the same or on different individuals are of two kinds, the antheridia and archegonia; the origin of both is from single superficial cells of the prothallus.
The spores of the homosporous Vascular Cryptogams are usually of small size; the prothalli produced from them usually bear both antheridia and archegonia, though under special conditions an imperfect sexual differentiation may result.
Further, several spores will be likely to germinate together owing to their elaters becoming entangled; a fact of some importance, since the antheridia and archegonia, though occurring sometimes on the same prothallus, are more often borne on separate individuals.
Those that bear the antheridia are the smaller, and are either filamentous, or flattened, and irregularly lobed.
The antheridia are deeply sunk in the tissue; the spermatozoids consist of a spiral of two or three coils, the numerous cilia being attached to the pointed anterior end.
The antheridia and archegonia are produced above the meristematic zone, and are more or less sunk in the tissues of the prothallus.
The prothallus developed from the spore is green and in most cases dorsiventral, bearing the archegonia and antheridia on the under surface.
A, Prothallus viewed from the lower surface; ar, archegonia; an, antheridia; rh, rhizoids (much enlarged).
The prothalli are similar to those of the other Filicaceae, but more massive; the same may be said of the archegonia and antheridia, which, however, project more than in the preceding group.
The archegonia and antheridia present points of similarity to those of the Gleicheniaceae.
The microspores on germination produce a small, greatly reduced male prothallus bearing one or two antheridia which give rise to a number of spirally coiled, multiciliate spermatozoids.