It appears to be common in the neighbourhood of Cape Town, while the recent Antarctic expeditions have shown that it occurs in various localities from the Falkland Islands to the Antarctic circle.
173; National Antarctic Exp., Nat.
The Antarctic beech and Winter's bark (Drimys Winteri) are found at intervals along the Andes to the northern limits of this zone.
In reality, however, it experiences fewer climatic variations than the other great continents, owing to its distance (28°) from the Antarctic circle and (11°) from the equator.
Modern naturalists consider that many of the problems of Australia's remarkable fauna and flora can be best explained by the following hypothesis: - The region now covered by the antarctic ice-cap was in early Tertiary times favoured by a mild climate; here lay an antarctic continent or archipelago.
It is not to be supposed that this antarctic element, to which Professor Tate has applied the name Euronotian, entered a desert barren of all life.
As a step towards such hypothesis it has been noted that the Antarctic, the South African, and the Australian floras have many types in common.
Dr Klaatsch's view is that they are survivals of a primitive race which inhabited a vast Antarctic continent of which South America, South Africa and Australia once formed a part, as evidenced by the identity of many species of birds and fish.
(1893); Hedley, " Surviving Refugees in Austral Lands of Ancient Antarctic Life," Royal Society N.
For purposes of measurement the polar boundaries are taken to be the Arctic and Antarctic circles, although in discussing the configuration and circulation it is impossible to adhere strictly to these limits.
Before the Antarctic expeditions of 1903-1904 our knowledge of the form of the sea bottom south of 40° S.
Long., in which he recorded a depth exceeding 4000 fathoms. The Scottish Antarctic expedition has shown this sounding to be erroneous; the " Scotia " obtained samples of bottom, in almost the same spot, from a depth of 2660 fathoms. Combining the results of recent soundings, Dr W.
The prince of Monaco, the German " Valdivia " expedition under Professor Chun (1898), and the combined Antarctic expeditions (1903-1904).
The North Atlantic being altogether cut off from the Arctic regions, and the vertical circulation being active, this movement is here practically non-existent; but in the South Atlantic, where communication with the Southern Ocean is perfectly open, Antarctic water can be traced to the equator and even beyond.
The Antarctic-Alpine region is the complement of the ArcticAlpine, but unlike the latter, its scattered distribution over numerous isolated points of land, remote from great continental areas, from which, during migrations like those attending the glacial period in the northern hemisphere, it could have been recruited, at once accounts for its limited number of species and their contracted range in the world.
In 1642 the governor and council of Batavia fitted out two ships to prosecute the discovery of the south land, then believed to be part of a vast Antarctic continent, and entrusted the command to Captain Abel Jansen Tasman.
Tasman sailed from Batavia in 1642, and on the 24th of November sighted high land in 42° 30' S., which was named van Diemen's Land, and after landing there proceeded to the discovery of the western coast of New Zealand; at first called Staten Land, and supposed to be connected with the Antarctic continent from which this voyage proved New Holland to be separated.
The belief in a vast Antarctic continent stretching far into the temperate zone had never been abandoned, and was vehemently asserted by Charles Dalrymple, a disappointed candidate nominated by the Royal Society for the command of the Transit expedition of 1769.
Cook's second voyage was mainly intended to settle the question of the existence of such a continent once for all, and to define the limits of any land that might exist in navigable seas towards the Antarctic circle.
On a second cruise from the Society Islands, in 1773, he, first of all men, crossed the Antarctic circle, and was stopped by ice in 71° 10' S.
The chief element of uncertainty as to the largest features of the relief of the earth's crust is due to the unexplored area in the Arctic region and the larger regions of the Antarctic, of which Crustal we know nothing.
To these might be added the antarctic, which is still very imperfectly known.
The following are the chief areas of vegetational activity usually recognized: (1) The icedeserts of the arctic and antarctic and the highest mountain regions, where there is no vegetation except the lowest forms, like that which causes " red snow."
In this way, for example, it has been suggested that a land, " Lemuria," once connected Madagascar with the Malay Archipelago, and that a northern extension of the antarctic land once united the three southern continents.
There are three genera: (i.) Priapulus, with the species P. caudatus, Lam., of the Arctic and Antarctic and neighbouring cold seas, and P. bicaudatus, Dan., of the north Atlantic and Arctic seas; (ii.) Priapuloides australis, de Guerne, of the southern circumpolar waters; and (iii.) Halicryptus, with the species H.
32), delineated the Chinese Empire in accordance with the map based on the surveys conducted during the reign of the emperor Kanghi, with the aid of Jesuit missionaries, and published in 1718; boldly refused to believe in the existence of an Antarctic continent covering half the southern hemisphere, and always brought a sound judgment to bear upon the materials which the ever-increasing number of travellers placed at his disposal.
The most important were: the Australian Antarctic expedition of 1911-4 under Sir Douglas Mawson; the Danish Oceanographical expeditions in the Mediterranean and adjacent seas of 1908-10; a short cruise made by Sir John Murray and Dr. Johan Hjort in the Norwegian Fishery exploring vessel " Michael Sars " in 1910, the general results of which were published as The Depths of the Ocean (1912) by the leaders of the expedition; and a short special cruise made by the " Scotia " in 1913 (after the loss of the " Titanic ") under the leadership of Dr. Matthews, which made observations upon the distribution of ice in the North Atlantic.
The distribution is very interesting and it has been shown that the water of the Antarctic Ocean contains about 0 .
This is really the case, for all observations show that the Antarctic and Arctic ice-bound seas are enormously rich in diatom life when compared with temperate and tropical regions: the great Antarctic zone of sea-bottom deposit, in which the skeletons of diatoms predominate, covers some ten millions of square miles.
Leaving Hampton Roads on the 18th of August 1838, it Mopped at Madeira and Rio de Janeiro; visited Tierra del Fuego, Chile, Peru, the Paumotu group of the Low Archipelago, the Samoan islands and New South Wales; from Sydney sailed into the Antarctic Ocean in December 1839 and reported the discovery of an Antarctic continent west of the Balleny islands; visited the Fiji and the Hawaiian islands in 1840, explored the west coast of the United States, including the Columbia river, San Francisco Bay and the Sacramento river, in 1841, and returned by way of the Philippine islands, the Sulu archipelago, Borneo, Singapore, Polynesia and the Cape of Good Hope, reaching New York on the 10th of June 1842.
That Wilkes discovered an Antarctic continent was long doubted, and one of the charges against him when he was court-martialled was that he had fabricated this discovery, but the expedition of Sir Ernest Shackleton in 1908-1909 corroborated Wilkes.
That part of the Antarctic continent known as Wilkes Land was named in his honour.
On the other hand, recent Antarctic exploration makes it practically certain that a great continent surrounds the south pole with a total area considerably more than Sir John Murray's estimate in 1894, when he assigned to it an area of 9,000,000 sq.
It is probable that the Antarctic continent measures about 13,000,000 sq.
A committee of the Royal Geographical Society - the deliberations of which were interrupted by the departure on his last voyage of Sir John Franklin, one of the members - suggested these meridians as boundaries; the north and south boundaries of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans being the polar circles, leaving an Arctic and an Antarctic Ocean to complete the hydrosphere.
We now know, however, that the Antarctic circle runs so close to the coast of Antarctica that the Antarctic Ocean may be left out of account.
As limits; but in none of these schemes has the coast of Antarctica been adequately considered, and they have all been too much influenced by the Mercator map. Each of the three oceans, Atlantic, Indian and Pacific, possesses an Antarctic facies in the southern part and a tropical facies between the tropics, and the Atlantic and Pacific an Arctic facies in their northern parts.
The North African Basin has several deeps with more than 3300 fathoms to the northwest and the south-west of the Cape Verde Islands, but the South African Basin is less deep. In the South Atlantic there is no connexion between the Central Rise and the Antarctic Shelf, for the Indo-Atlantic Antarctic Basin stretches from near the South Sandwich Islands towards Kerguelen with depths exceeding 2500 fathoms and reaching in places 3100.
In the Indian Ocean the Kerguelen Rise stretches broadly southward, east of the island which gives it a name, to the Antarctic Shelf with the greatest depths upon it usually less than 2000 fathoms, and it stretches northward beyond New Amsterdam to 30° S.
This rise is separated from the Crozet Rise by a depression extending to 2675 fathoms, through which the Kerguelen Trough (which lies north of Kerguelen) is brought into free communication with the Indo-Atlantic Antarctic Basin.
The Pacific Ocean consists mainly of one enormous basin bounded on the west by New Zealand and the Tonga, Marshall aid Marianne ridges, on the north by the festoons of islands marking off the North Pacific fringing seas, on the east by the coast of North America and the great Easter Island Rise and on the south by the Antarctic Shelf.
The Pacific Antarctic Basin occupies the vast region south of 50° S.
It is particularly in evidence round the whole of the Antarctic Shelf, where it occurs down to depths of 2500 fathoms. It is the chief deposit, according to Nansen, of the North Polar Basin and, according to Schmelck and Bdggild, of the Norwegian Sea also, where it is largely mixed with the shells of the bottom-living foraminifer Biloculina.
For the open ocean the only quite trustworthy results are those obtained by the prince of Monaco in the North Atlantic, and by the recent Antarctic expeditions in the South Atlantic and South Indian Oceans.
As the Arctic Basin is shut off from the North Atlantic by ridges rising to within 300 fathoms of the surface and from the Pacific by the shallow shelf of the Bering Sea, and as the ice-laden East Greenland and Labrador currents consist of fresh surface water which cannot appreciably influence the underlying mass, the Arctic region has no practical effect upon the bottom temperature of the three great oceans, which is entirely dominated by the influence of the Antarctic. The existence of deep-lying and extensive rises or ridges in high southern latitudes has been indicated by the deep-sea temperature observations of Antarctic expeditions.
Prevail right northwards across the equator into the Bay of Biscay, showing a steady rise of bottom temperature as successive submarine elevations restrict communication with 'the Antarctic. On the other hand, in the more open Argentine Basin, which carries deep water far to the south, the bottom temperature in 40° S.
In similar depths in the Pacific south of the equator temperatures of 33.8° to 34.5° are found, and north of the equator bottom temperatures at the same depth increase to 35.1° in the neighbourhood of the Aleutian Islands, again completely justifying the conclusion as to the Antarctic control of deep water temperature throughout the ocean.
In the course of a year, while in the Antarctic regions the season's growth is only half as great; in the latter also the accumulated snow is an important factor in the thickness of the ice, and snow is an even worse conductor of heat.
In the southernhemisphere the icepack forms a nearly continuous fence around the Antarctic continent.
Strongly marked differences in density are produced by the melting of sea-ice, and this is of particular importance in the case of the great ice barrier round the Antarctic continent.