For long only the principal village of the Hova chiefs, Antananarivo advanced in importance as those chiefs made themselves sovereigns of the greater part of Madagascar, until it became a town of some 80,000 inhabitants.
South-west of Antananarivo there is a still larger extinct volcano, Ankaratra, with an extensive lava field surrounding it; while near Lake Itasy are some 200 volcanic cones.
The yearly rainfall of the Imerina province (Antananarivo) averages about 542 in.; accurate statistics as to that of other parts of the island are not available; but on the east coast it appears to be about double that of the interior; in the south-east considerably more than that amount; while at Morondava (west coast) it is given as about 21 in.
At Tamatave (east coast) the mean annual temperature is given as 76.5°, while at the capital it is about 66°; the temperature of Antananarivo resembles that of Naples or Palermo.'
The following table gives the mean of two different sets of government returns of mean rainfall: Antananarivo, 1369 mm.; Tamatave, E.
The capital, Antananarivo (pop. 69,000), in the highlands of Imerina, and Tamatave (pop. 4600), on the east coast and the chief seaport, are separately described.
Tamatave and Antananarivo are joined by coast canals and lakes and by a railway service.
But no effectual resistance was made by the Malagasy, and at length, on the 30th of September 1895, the French forces appeared on the heights north and east of Antananarivo, bombarded the city, which surrendered in the afternoon, and on the evening of the same day the French entered the capital.
Sibree, Madagascar and its People (London, 1870); Tantara ny Andriana eto Madagascar: Histoire des rois d'Imerina d'apres les manuscrits malgaches, (Antananarivo, 1875); Mullens, Twelve Months in Madagascar (London, 1875); Blanchard, L' Ile de Madagascar (Paris, 18 75); Dahle, Madagaskar og dets Beboere (Christiania, 1876-1878); Sibree and Baron (eds.), The Antananarivo Annual, Nos.
(18 751900, pp. 3115); Notes, reconnaissances, et explorations, revue mensuelle (Antananarivo, 5 vols., 18 9718 99, pp. 3041); Sibree, A Madagascar Bibliography (Antananarivo, 1885); Vaissibre, Histoire de Madagascar (Paris, 1884), Vingt ans a Madagascar (Paris, 1885); Oliver, Madagascar: an Historical and Descriptive Account (2 vols., London, 1886); Cousins, Madagascar of To-day (London, 18 95); Bulletin du comite de Madagascar (monthly) (Paris, 1895, et seq.); Sibree, Madagascar before the Conquest (London, 1896); Catat, Voyage a Madagascar (Paris, 1895); Annuaire de Madagascar (Antananarivo, 1898, et seq.); J.
Gallieni, Rapport d'ensemble sur la situation generale de Madagascar (2 vols., Paris, 1899); Revue de Madagascar, mensuelle, illustree (1895, et seq.); Guide de ?immigrant a Madagascar (3 vols., with atlas, Paris, 1899); Collection des anciens ouvrages relatifs a Madagascar, par les soins du comite de Madagascar (a collection and translation of all works relating to the island from 1500 to 1800, in To vols.), (Paris, 1899 et seq.); Bulletin trimestriel de l'academie de Malgache (quarterly) (Antananarivo, 1902 et seq.); G.
And Mal.-Eng.), (Antananarivo, i 835); Daimon d, Vocabulaire et grammaire pour les langues malgaches, Sakalava et Betsimisara (Bourbon, 1842); R.
Soc. (1860); Ailloud, Grammaire malgache-hbva (Antananarivo, 1872); W.
Besides these there are several valuable papers by Dahle in the yearly numbers of The Antananarivo Annual (ante) (1876-1877); Richardson, A New Malagasy-English Dictionary (Antananarivo, 1885); Cousins and Parrett, Malagasy Proverbs (Antananarivo, 1885); Causseque, Grammaire malgache (Antananarivo, 1886); Abinal et 1Vlalzac, Dictionnaire malgache frangais (Antananarivo, 1889); Brandstetter, " Die Beziehungen des Malagasy zum Malaiischen," Malaio-polynesische Forschungen, pt.
1870-1880, 1881); Johnson, Review of Work of the Friends' Foreign Mission Association in Madagascar,1867-1880(Antananarivo, 1880); Vaissiere, Histoire de Madagascar, ses habitants et ses missionaires (Paris, 1884); The Church in Madagascar (S.P.G., 15 years' progress, 1874-1889, 1889); La Liberte religieuse a Madagascar (Paris, 1897); Matthews, Thirty Years in Madagascar (London, 1904); Sibree, The L.M.S.