The middle ages, in the person of Anselm of Canterbury, contribute the first clear form of the Ontological argument for theism.
Anselm tells us that a most perfect being must exist, since the perfection which includes existence is manifestly greater than a perfection confined to an object of thought.
A more liberal estimate might include John Scotus Erigena or even Anselm or Bernard of Clairvaux in the West and Photius in the East.
Lanfranc brought law and discipline; Anselm brought theology and philosophy.
Such is the teaching, along different lines, alike of St Anselm and of Abelard.
At many points it follows Anselm closely, and, of course, very often " makes light work " of its task.
Stone Anselm Joseph McLaurin Andrew Houston Longino James Kimble Vardaman Edmund Favor Noel .
However, he regarded St Anselm as his friend, and he showed the customary liberality to religious houses.
Paul Johann Anselm, Ritter Von Feuerbach >>
Only two of the volumes are known to be in existence; one is a copy of John of Salisbury's works in the British Museum, and the other some theological treatises by Anselm and others in the Bodleian.
He was educated under Bernard of Chartres and Anselm of Laon.
Finally, to contemporary writers we may add contemporary letters, especially those written by Stephen of Blois and Anselm of Ribemont, and the three letters sent to the West by the crusading princes during the First Crusade (see Hagenmeyer, Epistulae et Chartae, &c., Innsbruck, 1901).2 (b) The later compilations are chiefly based on the Gesta, whose uncouth style many writers set themselves to mend.
Ralph of Coggeshall, who used information gained from crusaders, and William of Newburgh, who had access to a work by Richard I.'s chaplain Anselm, which is now lost.4 The French side is presented in Rigord's Gesta Philippi Augusti and in the Gesta (an abridgment and continuation of Rigord) and the Philippeis of William the Breton.
Many of them afterwards attained high positions in the Church; one, Anselm of Badagio, became pope under the title of Alexander II.
In 1102 a national synod at Westminster under Anselm adopted canons against simony, clerical marriages and slavery.
In the meantime the new king, by issuing his famous charter, by recalling Anselm, and by choosing the Anglo-Scottish princess Edith-Matilda, daughter of Malcolm III.,.
Anselm preached in his favour,, English levies marched under the royal banner both to repel Robert's invasion (1 ior) and to crush the revolt of the Montgomeries headed by Robert of Belleme (1102).
Henry was sharply criticized for his ingratitude to Anselm (q.v.), in spite of the marked respect.
He accompanied, and wrote the history of, the Dominican embassy;under Friar Ascelin or Anselm, which Pope Innocent IV.
It is divisible into two well-marked periods - the first extending to the end of the 12th century and embracing as its chief names Roscellinus, Anselm, William of Champeaux and Abelard, while the second extended from the beginning of the 13th century to the Renaissance and the general distraction of men's thoughts from the problems and methods of Scholasticism.
Hence the strength with which a champion of the faith like Anselm insists on the subordination of reason.
With which he formulated his position were the im mediate occasion of the contemporaneous crystallization of Realism in the theories of Anselm and William of Champeaux.
From the scanty and ill-natured notices of his opponents (Anselm and Abelard), we gather that he refused to recognize the reality of anything but the individual; he treated " the universal substance," says Anselm, as no more than " flatum vocis," a verbal breathing or sound; and in a similar strain he denied any reality to the parts of which a whole, such as a house, is commonly said to be composed.
Some of the expressions used by Anselm in controverting his position favour this idea.
This theological deduction from his doctrine drew upon Roscellinus the polemic of his most celebrated opponent, Anselm of Canterbury (1033-1109).
Roscellinus appears at first to have imagined that his tritheistic theory had the sanction of Lanfranc and Anselm, and the latter was led in consequence to compose his treatise De fide Trinitatis.
" The manner in which humanity exists in the individual was soon to be the subject of keen discussion, and to bring to light diverging views within the Realistic camp; but St Anselm does not go into detail on this point, and seems to imply that it is not surrounded by special difficulties.
To Anselm speciall y belongs the motto Credo ut intelligam, or, as it is obscurity of the schools..
Besides its connexion with the speculations of Anselm, the doctrine of Roscellinus was also of decisive influence within the schools in crystallizing the opposite opinion.
Anselm had made an elaborate employment of reason in the interest of faith, but the spirit of pious subordination which had marked the demonstrations of Anselm seemed wanting in the argumentations of this bolder and more restless spirit; and the church, or at least an influential section of it, took alarm at the encroachments of Rationalism.
Albert and no doubt stood on a higher level than Anselm and Abelard, not merely by their wider range of knowledge but also by the intellectual massiveness of their achieve ments; but it may be questioned whether the earlier writers did not possess a greater force of originality and a keener talent.
The existence of God is maintained by Albert and Aquinas to be domonstrable by reason; but here again they reject the ontological argument of Anselm, and restrict themselves to the a posteriori proof, rising after the manner of Aristotle from that which is prior for us to that which is prior by nature or in itself.
With a view to facilitating the crusade, a council was held at Bari in October 1098, at which religious differences were debated and the exiled Anselm of Canterbury combated the Eastern view of the Procession of the Holy Ghost.
Anselm Feuerbach >>
The last book (xvii.) treats of theology or (as we should now say) mythology, and winds up with an account of the Holy Scriptures and of the Fathers, from Ignatius and Dionysius the Areopagite to Jerome and Gregory the Great, and even of later writers from 'Isidore and Bede, through Alcuin, Lanfranc and Anselm, down to Bernard of Clairvaux and the brethren of St Victor.
There are few great names in the 9th, 10th and 11th centuries: Anselm was a great Churchman, but no great preacher; perhaps the most worthy of mention is Anskar, the missionary to the Scandinavians.
He became a monk in the Benedictine monastery of Christ Church, Canterbury, where he made the acquaintance of Anselm, at that time visiting England as abbot of Bec. The intimacy was renewed when Anselm became archbishop of Canterbury in 1093; thenceforward Eadmer was not only his disciple and follower, but his friend and director, being formally appointed to this position by Pope Urban II.
C. 200) to Anselm (d.
Anselm and the scholastics regarded the atonement as an offering to God of such infinite value as to outweigh men's sins, a view sometimes styled the " Commerical Theory."
After studying under Anselm of Laon and Roscellinus, he taught in the school of the cathedral of Notre Dame, of which he was made canon in 1103.
He drew from the Moslems the mass of his infantry, and St Anselm visiting him at the siege of Capua, 1098, found "the brown tents of the Arabs innumerable."
The Lombard Anselm (d.
In and after the middle of that century the Norman monastery of Bec flourished under the rule of Lanfranc and Anselm, both of whom had begun their career in northern Italy, and closed it at Canterbury.
In Italy, where the study of Latin literature seems never to have entirely died out, young nobles and students preparing for the priesthood were not infrequently learning Latin together, in private grammar schools under liberal clerics, such as Anselm of Bisate (fl.
A great part of it is derived from known sources, especially from Henry of Huntingdon, Jordan Fantosme, the Itinerarium regis Ricardi, or its French original, and a lost account, by Anselm the chaplain, of the captivity of Richard I.
Put an end to the long quarrel between the royal government and Anselm of Canterbury by accepting the Concordat of London (1107).
(Leipzig, 1894); Ernst Bernheim, Zur Geschichte des Wormser Konkordates (Gottingen, 1878); Martin Rule, The Life and Times of St Anselm (2 vols., London, 1883); and Klemm, Der Investiturstreit unter Heinrich I.
The works of the classical authors before mentioned were printed, and other treatises were published by John de Indagine, Codes, Andreas Corvus, Michael Blondus, Janus Cornaro, Anselm Douxciel, Pompeius Ronnseus, Gratarolus, Lucas Gauricus, Tricassus, Cardanus, Taisnierus, Magnus Hund, Rothman, Johannes Padovanus, and, greatest of all, Giambattista della Porta.
ANSELM, of Laon (d.
He is said to have studied under St Anselm at Bec. About 1076 he taught with great success at Paris, where, as the associate of William of Champeaux, he upheld the realistic side of the scholastic controversy.