The Teverone or Anio, which enters the Tiber a few miles above Rome, is an inferior stream to the Nera, but brings down a considerable body of water from the mountains above Subiaco.
Of Rome, where the Anio falls into the Tiber.
It is finely situated at the point where the Anio forms its celebrated falls; it is protected on the E., N., and N.W.
The modern town is in part built upon the terraces of a large temple of Hercules Victor, the chief deity of Tibur, of which some remains exist: many small votive objects in terra-cotta were found in the gorge of the Anio below the town on the north-west in 1898.
Below it, on the cliffs above the Anio, is a large building round a colonnaded courtyard in opus reticulatum built over the Via Tiburtina (which passes under it in an arched passage), generally known as the villa of Maecenas, but shown by the discovery of inscriptions to have been in reality the meeting place of the Herculanei Augustales, connected probably with the temple.
They are traditionally, but without foundation, attributed to Vesta and the Sibyl of Tibur (Varro adds Albunea, the water goddess worshipped on the banks of the Anio as a tenth Sibyl to the nine mentioned by the Greek writers.
Catullus and Statius, too, have rendered it famous by their poems. The abundance of water from aqueducts and springs and the falls of the Anio were among its chief attractions.
The site is undoubtedly to be sought on the hill now occupied by the large medieval fortified farmhouse of Lunghezza, immediately to the south of the Anio, which occupies the site of the citadel joined by a narrow neck to the tableland to the south-east on which the city stood: this is protected by wide valleys on each side, and is isolated at the south-east end by a deep narrow valley enlarged by cutting.
Valerius Messalla, censor in 154 B.C. It ran first up the Anio valley past Varia, and then, abandoning it at the 36th mile, where the Via Sublacensis diverged, ascended to Carseoli (q.v.), and then again to the lofty pass of Monte Bove (4003 ft.), whence it descended again to the valley occupied by the Lago di Fucino.
These hills (especially the Palatine, the site of the original settlement) with their naturally steep sides, partly surrounded at the base by marshes and situated not far from the confluence of the Anio with the Tiber, possessed natural advantages not shared by the other primitive settlements of the district; and their proximity to one another rendered it easy to bring them into a larger whole.
Numerous isolated palaeolithic objects of the Mousterian type have been found in the neighbourhood of Rome in the quaternary gravels of the Tiber and Anio; but no certain traces of the neolithic period have come to light, as the many Pre" flint implements found sporadically round Rome pro- historic bably belong to the period which succeeded neolithic (called by Italian archaeologists the eneolithic period) inasmuch as both stone and metal (not, however, bronze, but copper) were in use.
A similar rock-cut tomb was found at Mandela, in the Anio valley.
The tribus Claudia, probably the last of the 16 older tribus rusticae, was according to tradition founded in 504 B.C. Its territory lay beyond the Anio, between Fidenae and Ficulea (Liv.
The road to Ostia may have existed from the first: but after the Latin corn munities on the lower Anio had fallen under the dominion of Rome, we may well believe that the first portion of the Via Salaria, leading to Antemnae, Fidenae (the fall of which is placed by tradition in 428 B.C.) and Crustumerium, came into existence.
In 299 B.C. further successes led to the establishment of two new tribes - the Teretina in the upper valley of the Trerus (Sacco) and the Aniensis, in the upper valley of the Anio - while to about the same time we must attribute the construction of two new military roads, both secured by fortresses.
They are traversed by three principal valleys: (I) that of the Anio, now called Teverone, which descends from above Subiaco to Tivoli, where it enters the plain of the Campagna; (2) that of the Trerus (Sacco), which has its source below Palestrina (Praeneste), and flows through a comparatively broad valley that separates the main mass of the Apennines from the Volscian mountains or Monti Lepini, till it joins the Liris below Ceprano; (3) that of the Liris (Garigliano), which enters the confines of New Latium about 20 m.
Dentatus was consul for the third time in 274, when he finally crushed the Lucanians and Samnites, and censor in 272: In the latter capacity he began to build an aqueduct to carry the waters of the Anio into the city, but died (270) before its completion.
Its principal tributaries are the Paglia, the Nera and the Anio or Teverone, and it is generally navigable by boats up to the confluence of the Nera, a distance of 104 m., though, owing to the rapidity of the current, there is very little navigation above Rome.