The twenty-six books De Animalibus of Albertus Magnus (Groot), printed in 1478, are founded mainly on Aristotle.
He published at Oxford in 1668 two tracts, on respiration and rickets, and in 1674 these were reprinted, the former in an enlarged and corrected form, with three others "De sal-nitro et spiritu nitro - aereo," "De respiratione foetus in utero et ovo," and "De motu musculari et spiritibus animalibus" as Tractatus quinque medico-physici.
Avicenna also makes some acute physiognomical remarks in his De animalibus, which was translated by Michael Scot about 1270.
Among medieval writers Albertus Magnus (born 1205) devotes much of the second section of his De animalibus to physiognomy; but this chiefly consists of extracts from Aristotle, Polemon and Loxus.
Aldrovandi in De animalibus insectis (1602) almost contemporaneously distinguished between "terrestrial insects," including woodlice, earthworms and slugs, and "aquatic insects," comprising annelids and starfishes.