It was no longer necessary to suppose that a halfconscious" anima "was directing every movement.
Myers claimed her as anima naturaliter Christiana and the inspired exponent of the religion of the future.
In the first half of the 13th century, Abraham ibn Ilasdai, a vigorous supporter of Maimonides, translated (or adapted) a large number of philosophical works from Arabic, among them being the Sepher ha-tappuah, based on Aristotle's de Anima, and the Mozene Zedeq of Ghazzali on moral philosophy, of both of which the originals are lost.
Rogeri Baconis Anglici de Arte Chymiae Scripta (Frankfort, 1603) - a collection of small tracts containing Excerpta de Libro Avicennae de Anima, Breve Breviarium, Verbum Abbreviatum, 3 Secretum Secretorum, Tractatus Trium Verborum, and Speculum Secretorum; (5) Perspectiva (1614), which is the fifth part of the Opus Majus; (6) Specula Mathematica, which is the fourth part of the same; (7) Opus Majus ad Clementem IV ., edited by S.
The perfection of the form of a thing is its entelechy (ivr€AMXECa) in virtue of which it attains its fullest realization of function (De anima, Í.
" These writings contained," says Haureau, " the text of the Organon, the Physics, the Metaphysics, the Ethics, the De anima, the Parva naturalia and a large number of other treatises of Aristotle, accompanied by continuous commentaries.
This was a natural result of acquaintance with Aristotle's De anima and the numerous Greek and Arabian commentaries upon it, and it is observable in most of the writers that have still to be mentioned.
1249), whose treatises De universo and De anima make extensive use of Aristotle and the Arabians, but display a similar Platonic leaning.
Aquinas regards the souls of men, like the angels, as immaterial forms; and he includes in the soul-unit, so to speak, not merely the anima rationalis of Aristotle, but also the vegetative, sensitive, appetitive and motive functions.
The anima thus corresponds partly to the" nature "of Sydenham, while In other respects it resembles the archeus of Van Helmont.
(a) De Anima, a discussion on the nature of the soul, at the conclusion of which the author deplores the quarrel between two such great peoples as the Goths and Romans.
The unity expounded at first is simply an anima mundi, a living universe, but not intelligent.
ANIMISM (from animus, or anima, mind or soul), according to the definition of Dr E.
He studied with earnest zeal the Greek philosophers; Plato in particular, and the writings of the Stoics, he had fully at command, and his treatise De Anima shows that he himself was able to investigate and discuss philosophical problems. From the philosophers he had been led to the medical writers, whose treatises plainly had a place in his working library.
Apelleiacos (lost), De paradiso (lost), De fato (lost), De anima (the first book on Christian psychology), De carne Christi, De resurrectione carnis, and De spe fidelium (lost), were all written after Tertullian had recognized the prophetic claims of the Montanists, but before he had left the church.
'Yvxijs: On soul (perhaps cited Anima, 1.4, 407 b 29, Kai Tols Ev yEVOIAPOLS 2.
Finally, in the spirit of Plato's Phaedo and the dialogue Eudemus, the Protrepticus holds that the soul is bound to the sentient members of the body as prisoners in Etruria are bound face to face with corpses; whereas the later view of the De Anima is that the soul is the vital principle of the body and the body the necessary organ of the soul.
Those of the Physics, vii., and those of the De Anima, ii., discovered by Torstrik; or two discussions of the same subject, e.g.
To put one extreme case, about the soul he could think at first in the Eudemus like Plato that it is imprisoned in the body, and long afterwards in the De Anima like himself that it is the immateriate essence of the material bodily organism.
And .De Anima, ii.
So he might afterwards add the preface to the De Interpretatione, in order to connect it with the De Anima, though written afterwards, in order to connect his treatises on mind and on its expression.
Beginning then with his early writings, which are now lost, the dialogues On Poetry and the Eudemus were probably the published discourses to which Aristotle himself refers (Poetics, u5; De Anima, i.
It is not spurious, as some have supposed, nor later than the De Anima, as Zeller thought, but Aristotle in an earlier frame of mind.
On the same subject, so in modern times Torstrik, having discovered that there were two versions of the De Anima, Book ii., suggested that both were by Aristotle.
In the De Anima (iii.
As then we find this identification of pleasure with activity in the Metaphysics and in the De Anima, as well as in the Nicomachean Ethics, the Eudemian Ethics and the Magna Moralia, the only logical conclusion, from which there is no escape, is that, so far as the treatment of pleasure goes, any Aristotelian treatise which defines it as activity is genuine.
It is more likely that Aristotle identified pleasure with activity in the De Anima, the Metaphysics and the three moral treatises, as we have seen; but that afterwards some subsequent Peripatetic, considering that the pleasure of perceiving or thinking is not the same as perceiving or thinking, declared the previous identification of pleasure with activity absurd.
Moreover, the arrangement sometimes breaks down: for example, though on the whole the logical books are quoted without quoting the rest, the De Interpretatione (chap. 1) quotes the De Anima, and therefore is falsely taken by Zeller against its own internal evidence to be subsequent to it and consequently to the other logical books.
10, 336 b 29), in the De Anima (i.
Such is the great mind of Aristotle manifested in the large map of learning, by which we have now to determine the order of his extant philosophical writings, with a view to studying them in their real order, which is neither chronological nor traditional, but philosophical and scientific. Turning over the pages of the Berlin edition, but passing over works which are perhaps spurious, we should put first and foremost speculative philosophy, and therein the primary philosophy of his Metaphysics (980 a 211093 b 29); then the secondary philosophy of his Physics, followed by his other physical works, general and biological, including among the latter the Historia Animalium as preparatory to the De Partibus Animalium, and the De Anima and Parva Naturalia, which he called " physical " but we call " psychological" (184 a 10-967 b 27); next, the practical philosophy of the Ethics, including the Eudemian Ethics and the Magna Moralia as earlier and the Nicomachean Ethics as later (1094-124 9 b 25), and of the Politics (1252-1342), with the addition of the newly discovered Athenian Constitution as ancillary to it; finally, the productive science, or art, of the Rhetoric, including the earlier Rhetoric to Alexander and the later Rhetorical Art, and of the Poetics, which was unfinished (1354-end).
Such is Aristotle's dual, or rather triple, realism, continued in his De Anima and other biological writings, especially De Generatione Animalium, ii.
Such is Aristotle's psychological and logical realism, contained in the De Anima and logical treatises.
Waitz (not so well as by Pacius), the De Anima edited (1833) by F.
Butcher's Poetics, Hicks's De Anima, J.
Wallace translated and annotated the De Anima; B.
Now there is a will to think, and Aristotle pointed out that thinking is in our power whenever one pleases, whereas sense depends on an external stimulus (De anima, ii.
Returning to theology, he attempted to connect it with philosophy in a treatise, Dilucidationes philosophicae, de deo, anima humana, mundo (Tubingen, 1725, 1746, 1768).
His principal works were translations of the following portions of Aristotle,- Categoriae, De Interpretatione, Analytica Posteriora, Physica, De Caelo, De Anima, Metaphysica, Ethica Nicomachea, Politica; and an Expositio Ethicorum Aristotelis.
Lastly the soul is pictured as being a man's breath (anima), and this again has come down to us in literature, evidenced by the fact that the word "breath" has become a synonym for life itself.
After his return from Persia Simplicius wrote commentaries upon Aristotle's De coelo, Physica, De anima and Categoriae, which, with a commentary upon the Enchiridion of Epictetus, have survived.
Several of Alexander's works were published in the Aldine edition of Aristotle, Venice, 1495-1498; his De Fato and De Anima were printed along with the works of Themistius at Venice (1534); the former work, which has been translated into Latin by Grotius and also by Schulthess, was edited by J.
The great commentaries exist only for the Posterior Analytics, Physics, De Caelo, De Anima and Metaphysics.
At the same time his psychology, though maintaining his empiricism, contained some seeds of conceptual logic, and indirectly of formal logic. Intellectual development, which according to the logic of the Analytics consists of sense, memory, experience, induction and intellect, according to the psychology of the De Anima consists of sense, imagination and intellect, and one division of intellect is into conception of the undivided and combination of conceptions as one (De An.
But the same passage relegates conceptions and their combinations to the De Anima, and confines the De Inter pretatione to names and propositions in conformity with the linguistic analysis which pervades the logical treatises of Aristotle, who neither brought his psychological distinction between conceptions and their combinations into his logic, nor advanced the combinations of conceptions as a definition of judgment (Kcp16cs), nor employed the mental distinction between conceptions and judgments as an analysis of inference, or reasoning, or syllogism: he was no conceptual logician.
In his doctrine as to 'Ev' Tò irow13v or Kpivon, as generally in that of the activity of the voiis diraOiis, Aristotle in the de Anima 9 is in the main but echoing the teaching of Plato.1° Athenaeus ii.
19.9 De Anima, 428b 18, 19.
19.19 de Anima, iii.
Again in the De anima (i.
On these grounds it was actually laid down as a rule for a man solicitous for his spiritual welfare to pass the last two of the four stages ((anima) of his life in such conditions of renunciation and self-restraint.
De Anima, 39 Aug.
These include works on the Physica, the Prior and the Posterior Analytics, the Meteorologica, the De anima, the De generatione animalium, the De generatione et interitu and the Metaphysica.
He held this position for seven years (1826-1833), occupying his leisure time with the preparation of a critical edition of Aristotle's De anima (1833; 2nd ed.
In the meantime he had helped to found a German hospice in Rome, which survives as the Instituto dell' Anima, and had begun to write a chronicle, of which only fragments are extant.
He says that he offered money for the Holy Spirit (De fuga, 12; De anima, 34), that he was cursed by the Apostles and expelled from the faith (De idol.
220) the followers of Simon professed to raise the souls of prophets from the dead (De anima, 57).
But the important passage is the account of his doctrine in De anima, 34, which is evidently derived from the same source as that of Irenaeus.
[Supposed by Zeller to belong to the latter half of the 1st century B.C.] 6.7repi iiuxiis: De anima: On soul, conjoined with organic body.
Historia Animalium, De Anima, Parva Naturalia, De Partibus Animalium, De Animalium Incessu, De Generatione Animalium.
His treatise De anima, on which Haureau lays particular stress, is interesting as showing the greater scope now given to psychological discussions.