Claus, Ber., 1873, 6, p. 723); by passing aniline vapour over lead oxide, or by the oxidation of dihydrophenazine, which is prepared by heating pyrocatechin with orthophenylene diamine (C. Ris, Ber., 1886, 19, p. 2206).
The mono-amino derivatives or eurhodines are obtained when the arylmonamines are condensed with orthoamino zo compounds; by condensing quinone dichlorimide or para-nitrosodimethyl aniline with monamines containing a free para position, or by oxidizing ortho-hydroxydiaminodiphenylamines (R.
This has a strong attraction for basic aniline dyes, and can usually be distinguished from other parts of the cell which are more easily colored by acid anilines.
Wurtz); by the action of nitrous acid on aniline; by passing oxygen into boiling benzene containing aluminium chloride (C. Friedel and J.
When heated with aniline it yields phenol and acetanilide.
It has an increasing trade in iron, timber, coal and agricultural products, a trade which is fostered by a harbour opened in 1897; and also large factories for making aniline dyes and soda.
The same authorities recommend a powder, composed of larvicide (an aniline substance), chrysanthemum flowers, and valerian root, to be burnt in bedrooms. Anointing the skin with strong-smelling substances is of little use in the open air, but more effective in the house; turpentine appears to be the best.
Its solvent power is also utilized in the production of various colouring fluids, where the colouring matter would not dissolve in water alone; thus aniline violet, the tinctorial constituents of madder, and various allied colouring matters dissolve in glycerin, forming liquids which remain coloured even when diluted with water, the colouring matters being either retained in suspension or dissolved by the glycerin present in the diluted fluid.
Moreover, while methylamine, dimethylamine, and trimethylamine increase in basicity corresponding to the introduction of successive methyl groups, phenylamine or aniline, diphenylamine, and triphenylamine are in decreasing order of basicity, the salts of diphenylamine being decomposed by water.
Aniline, C 6 H 5 NH 2, monomethyl aniline, C 6 H 5 NH CH 3, and dimethyl aniline, C 6 H 5 N(CH 3) 2, are in increasing order of basicity.
This theory explains the fluorescence of anthranilic acid (o-aminobenzoic acid), by regarding the aniline residue as the luminophore, and the carboxyl group as the fluorogen, since, apparently, the introduction of the latter into the non-fluorescent aniline molecule involves the production of a fluorescent substance.
When boiled with aniline it gives methylaniline and phenol.
On heating with alcohols to ioo° C. they form acetals, and they also form condensation products with para-amido-di-methyl-aniline (A.
Miller (Ber., 1892, 25, p. 2864; 1896, 29, p. 59) have shown that in the presence of aniline and sulphuric acid they give substituted quinolines.
The presence of so small a quantity as i% of alcohol may be detected in ether by the colour imparted to it by aniline violet; if water or acetic acid be present, the ether must be shaken with anhydrous potassium carbonate before the application of the test.
Aniline and similar bases are oxidized and partially nitrated by nitroglycerin, with the production of non-explosive compounds.
Among the city's manufactories are breweries, iron and brass foundries, stove factories, knitting mills, cotton mills, clothing factories, slaughtering and meat-packing establishments, cigar and cigarette factories, and manufactories of adhesive pastes, court plaster, spring beds, ribbed underwear, aniline dyes, chemicals, gas meters, fire-brick, and glazed paper and cardboard.
Fischer); by heating salicylic aldehyde with aniline and zinc chloride to 260° C. (R.
Koerner (Ber., 1884, 17, p. 203) by condensing ortho-nitrobenzaldehyde with aniline, the resulting ortho-nitro-para-diamino-triphenylmethane being reduced to the corresponding orthoamino compound, which on oxidation yields chrysaniline.
The introduction of cheap cottons and silk fabrics has dealt a blow to hand-weaving, while aniline dyes are driving out the native vegetable product; but both industries still linger in the rural tracts.
Silicon nitrogen hydride, SiNH, is a white powder formed with silicon amide when ammonia gas (diluted with hydrogen) is brought into contact with the vapour of silicon chloroform at -10° C. Trianilino silicon hydride, SiH (NHC 6 H 5) 3, is obtained by the action of aniline on a benzene solution of silicon chloroform.
In the earlier stages 30%, 50% and go% benzols were required, the 30% being mainly used for the manufacture of "aniline for red," and the 90% for "aniline for blue."
(The term " 30% benzol " means that 30% by volume distils below ioo°.) A purer benzol was subsequently required for the manufacture of aniline black and other dye-stuffs.
- Fischer found that if one molecule of phenylhydrazine acted upon one molecule of an aldose or ketose a hydrazone resulted which in most cases was very soluble in water, but if three molecules of the hydrazine reacted (one of which is reduced to ammonia and aniline) insoluble crystalline substances resulted, termed osazones, which readily characterized the sugar from which it was obtained.
In the production of aniline from nitrobenzene, but the use of iron is generally preferable in view of the cheapness of this metal.
They form condensation products with aldehydes, benzaldehyde and aniline forming benzylidene aniline, C 6 H 5 N: CHC 6 H 5, and when heated with acids they form anilides.
The simplest aromatic monamine is aniline, and the simplest mixed amines are monoand di-methyl aniline.
Instances of its application are found in the separation of orthoand para-nitrophenol, the o-compound distilling and the p- remaining behind; in the separation of aniline from the mixture obtained by reducing nitrobenzene; of the naphthols from the melts produced by fusing the naphthalene monosulphonic acids with potash; and of quinoline from the reaction between aniline, nitrobenzene, glycerin, and sulphuric acid (the product being first steam distilled to remove any aniline, nitrobenzene, or glycerin, then treated with alkali, and again steam distilled when quinoline comes over).
NAPHTHYLAMINES, or Aminonaphthalenes, C10H7NH2, the naphthalene homologues of aniline, in contrast to which they may be prepared by heating the naphthols with ammoniazinc chloride.
The imports are chiefly cotton yarn and piece goods, kerosene oil, palm-leaf fans, aniline dyes, sugar and matches.
The first aniline dye-stuff to be prepared on a manufacturing scale was mauveine, C 27 H 25 N 4 C1, which was obtained by Sir W.
It also results in the oxidation of aniline by monopersulphuric acid (H.
Concentrated hydrochloric acid converts it into chlorbenzene, aniline and nitrogen.
Zinc dust and alcoholic acetic acid reduce it to aniline and phenylhydrazine.
It unites with aldehydes to form esters of ketonic acids, and with aniline yields anilido-acetic acid.
When heated with aniline and its salts it yields phenylrosindulin (German patent 67339 (1888)).
Natanson (Ann., 1856, 9 8, p. 297) by the action of ethylene chloride on aniline, and by A.
Hofmann in 1858 from aniline and carbon tetrachloride.
It is prepared by oxidizing "aniline for red" (a mixture of aniline and orthoand para-toluidine) with arsenic acid (H.
Jour., 1860, 158, p. 146); by heating aniline for red with nitrobenzene, concentrated hydrochloric acid and iron (Coupier, Ber., 1873, 6, p. 423); or by condensing formaldehyde with aniline and ortho-toluidine and oxidizing the mixture.
Hofmann having previously shown that oxidation of pure aniline alone or of pure toluidine yielded no fuchsine, whilst oxidation of a mixture of aniline and para-toluidine gave rise to the fine red dyestuff para-fuchsine (pararosaniline hydrochloride) CH 3 C 6 H 4 NH 2 +2C 6 H 5 NH 2 +30 = HOC(C 6 H 4 NH 2) 3 +2H20.
Rosenstiehl (Jahres., 1869, p. 693) found also that different rosanilines were obtained according to whether orthoor para-toluidine was oxidized with aniline; and he gave the name rosaniline to the one obtained from aniline and ortho-toluidine, reserving the term pararosaniline for the other.