Owen Roe professed to be acting in the interest of Charles I.; but his real aim was the complete independence of Ireland, while the AngloNorman Catholics represented by the council desired to secure religious liberty and an Irish constitution under the crown of England.
- Though we have not much information concerning the religious gilds in the 12th century, they doubtless flourished under the AngloNorman kings, and we know that they were numerous, especially in the boroughs, from the 13th century onward.
Bedier, is that there was one poem, and one only, at the root of the various versions preserved to us, and that that poem, composed in England, probably by an AngloNorman, was a work of such force and genius that it determined for all time the form of the Tristan story.
The older foundation of Christ Church, owing to jeal ousies, both ecclesiastical and political, arising out of the AngloNorman invasion.
The language then underwent certain changes which gradually distinguished it from the French spoken in France; but, except for some graphical characteristics, from which certain rules of pronunciation are to be inferred, the changes to which the language was subjected were the individual modifications of the various authors, so that, while we may still speak of AngloNorman writers, an Anglo-Norman language, properly so called, gradually ceased to exist.
Its name is derived from Ath-na-riogh, the ford of kings; and it grew to importance after the AngloNorman invasion as the first town of the Burgs and Berminghams. The walls were erected in 1211 and the castle in 1238, and the remains of both are noteworthy.
The Latin version of the Rectitudines Singularum Personarum, a document compiled probably in the i rth century, not long before the Conquest, renders geneat (a peasant tenant of a superior kind performing lighter services than the gebur, as he was burdened with heavy week-work) by villanus; but the gebur came to be also considered as a villanus according to AngloNorman terminology.