The Livingston family then led the Dissenters, who later became Whigs, and the De Lancey family represented the Anglican Tory interests.
Through the columns of the Independent Reflector, which he established in 1752, Livingston fought the attempt of the Anglican party to bring the projected King's College (now Columbia University) under the control of the Church of England.
The chief event of his primacy was the meeting at Lambeth, in 1867, of the first Pan-Anglican conference of British, colonial and foreign bishops (see Lambeth Conferences).
He was now recognized as one of the chief opponents of Clarendon and the High Anglican policy.
What makes him memorable in English history is that he opposed the establishment of a special kind of political organization.
LAMBETH CONFERENCES, the name given to the periodical assemblies of bishops of the Anglican Communion (Pan-Anglican synods), which since 1867 have met at Lambeth Palace, the London residence of the archbishop of Canterbury.
They therefore requested him to call a "national synod of the bishopsof the Anglican Church at home and abroad," to meet under his leadership. After consulting both houses of the Convocation of Canterbury, Archbishop Longley assented, and convened all the bishops of the Anglican Communion (then 144 in number) to meet at Lambeth in 1867.
Many Anglican bishops (amongst them the archbishop of York and most of his suffragans) felt so doubtful as to the wisdom of such an assembly that they refused to attend it, and Dean Stanley declined to allow Westminster Abbey to be used for the closing service, giving as his reasons the partial character of the assembly, uncertainty as to the effect of its measures and "the presence of prelates not belonging to our Church."
The archbishop opened the conference with an address: deliberation followed; committees were appointed to report on special questions; resolutions were adopted, and an encyclical letter was addressed to the faithful of the Anglican Communion.
In addition to the encyclical letter, nineteen resolutions were put forth, and the reports of twelve special committees are appended upon which they are based, the subjects being intemperance, purity, divorce, polygamy, observance of Sunday, socialism, care of emigrants, mutual relations of dioceses of the Anglican Communion, home reunion, Scandinavian Church, Old Catholics, &c., Eastern Churches, standards of doctrine and worship. Perhaps the most important of these is the famous "Lambeth Quadrilateral," which laid down a fourfold basis for home reunion - the Holy Scriptures, the Apostles' and Nicene creeds, the two sacraments ordained by Christ himself and the historic episcopate.
The chief subjects of discussion were: the relations of faith and modern thought, the supply and training of the clergy, education, foreign missions, revision and "enrichment" of the Prayer-Book, the relation of the Church to "ministries of healing" (Christian Science, &c.), the questions of marriage and divorce, organization of the Anglican Church, reunion with other Churches.
The fifth Lambeth conference, following as it did close on the great Pan-Anglican congress, is remarkable mainly as a proof of the growth of the influence and many-sided activity of the Anglican Church, and as a conspicuous manifestation of her characteristic principles.
Of the seventy-eight resolutions none is in any sense epoch-making, and their spirit is that of the traditional Anglican via media.
By resolution 68 the conference stated its desire to "maintain and strengthen the friendly relations" between the Churches of the Anglican Communion and "the ancient Church of Holland" (Jansenist, see Utrecht) and the old Catholic Churches; and resolutions 70-73 made elaborate provisions for a projected corporate union between the Anglican Church and the Unitas Fratrum (Moravian Brethren).
So far as the organization of the Anglican Church is concerned, the most important outcome of the conference was the reconstruction of the Central Consultative Body on representative lines (54-56); this body to consist of the archbishop of Canterbury and seventeen bishops appointed by the various Churches of the Anglican Communion throughout the world.
A notable feature of the conference was the presence of the Swedish bishop of Kalmar, who presented a letter from the archbishop of Upsala, as a tentative advance towards closer relations between the Anglican Church and the Evangelical Church of Sweden.
Davidson, The Lambeth Conferences of 1867, 187.8 and 1888 (London, 1896); Conference of Bishops of the Anglican Communion, Encyclical Letter, &c. (London, 1897 and 1908).
Wesley and his helpers, finding the Anglican churches closed against them, took to preaching in the open air; and this method is still followed, more or less, in the aggressive evangelistic work of all the Methodist Churches.
This has led in some quarters to a desire that the moderator should be clothed with greater responsibility and have his period of office prolonged; should be made, in fact, more of a bishop in the Anglican sense of the word.
The next day the marriage was solemnized twice, according to the Roman Catholic and Anglican usages.
Amongst the more important buildings for ecclesiastical and philanthropic purposes erected to the north of the city since 1860 are the Russian cathedral, hospice and hospital; the French hospital of St Louis, and hospice and church of St Augustine; the German schools, orphanages and hospitals; the new hospital and industrial school of the London mission to the Jews; the Abyssinian church; the church and schools of the Church missionary society; the Anglican church, college and bishop's house; the Dominican monastery, seminary and church of St Stephen; the Rothschild hospital and girls' school; and the industrial school and workshops of the Alliance Israelite.
JOHN DOUGLAS (1721-1807), Scottish man of letters and Anglican bishop, was the son of a small shopkeeper at Pittenweem, Fife, where he was born on the 14th of July 1721.
In practice Anglican private worship appears to have been little interfered with; and although the recusant fines were rigorously exacted, the same seems to have been the case with the private celebration of the mass.
There was consensual agreement between the two neighbors that the two dogs should each wear leashes when walking in the front yard.
The Lenten fast was retained at the Reformation in some of the reformed Churches, and is still observed in the Anglican and Lutheran communions.
The government offices, art gallery and exchange, with St Mary's cathedral (Anglican), a building in a combination of native timbers, St Paul's and St Patrick's cathedral (Roman Catholic), are noteworthy buildings.
In Parnell is the former residence of Bishop Selwyn, who, arriving in the colony in 1842, assisted to draw up the constitution of the Anglican church.
Roman Catholic writers, 4 however, have explained the prohibition to apply to matters of faith only, and in that case the Tridentine decree is little else than another form of the Vincentian canon which has been widely accepted in the Anglican communion: curandum est ut id teneamus quod ubique, quod semper, quod ab omnibus creditum est.
Depreciation of the fathers was characteristic, not of the Anglican reformation, but of the 1 The editio princeps of Niceta's works was published by Dr A.
Fairbairn (Catholicism, Roman and Anglican, ch.
Illingworth [Anglican], in Personality, Human and Divine (1894), Divine Immanence (1898), Reason and Revelation (1902), who at times seems rather to presuppose the Thomist compromise, and A.
It is admitted by his Anglican critics that he did the work of enforcing uniformity against the Roman Catholics with good-will and considerable tact.
He treated the question at issue as one of pure logic, and disliking the Reformers, the right of private judgment which Protestants claimed, and the somewhat prosaic uniformity of the English Church, he flung himself into a general campaign against Protestantism in general and the Anglican form of it in particular.
It is specifically used as a title of address given to archdeacons in the Anglican Church.
Weeks deals with the religious history in his Religious Development in the Province of North Carolina (Baltimore, 1892), Church and State in North Carolina (Baltimore, 1893) and Southern Quakers and Slavery (Baltimore, 1896); he is anti-Anglican, but judicial.
The question of the use of the mitre in the Anglican Church is dealt with in the Report of the Sub-Committee of the Convocation of Canterbury on the Ornaments of the Church and its Ministers (1908).
The chief buildings are the town-hall, Anglican church, Masonic temple, and hospital.
By his personal conduct he had set an ideal example for Anglican priests, and it was not his fault that national authority failed to crush the individualistic tendencies of the Protestant Reformation.
There was from the first much trouble between its Anglican settlers sent over by Mason and the Puritans from Massachusetts, and in 1641 Massachusetts extended her jurisdiction over this region.
The meeting was held and ten months later Bourne was expelled by the Burslem Quarterly Meeting, ostensibly for non-attendance at class (he had been away from home, evangelizing), really, as the Wesleyan superintendent told him "because you have a tendency to set up other than the ordinary worship" which was precisely the reason why, fifty years earlier, the Anglican Church had declined to sanction the methods of John Wesley.
There are Anglican and Roman Catholic churches, and a hospital for natives, opened in 1891.
The town has an old Anglican church (St Eleth's).
Kilham further advocated the complete separation of the Methodists from the Anglican Church.
This he followed up by an encyclical on the unity of the Church (Sails cognitum, 29th June 1896); and the question of the validity of Anglican ordinations from the Roman Catholic point of view having been raised in Rome by Viscount Halifax, with whom the abbe Louis Duchesne and one or two other French priests were in sympathy, a commission was appointed to consider the subject, and on the 15th of September 1896 a condemnation of the Anglican form as theologically insufficient was issued, and was directed to be taken as final.
He was educated for the Anglican ministry at Llanddowror and Carmarthen, and at Jesus College, Oxford (1775-1778).
His Letters to a Lady inclined to enter the Church of Rome are excellent specimens of the attitude of a high Anglican towards Romanism.
For the Anglican usage see the Report of the Sub-committee of Convocation on the Ornaments of the Church, &c. (London, 1908).
The new archbishop, without being one of the English divines who have made notable contributions to theological learning, already had a great reputation for ecclesiastical statesmanship; and in subsequent years his diplomatic abilities found ample scope in dealing not only with the difficulties caused in the church by doctrinal questions, but pre-eminently with the education crisis, and with the new problems arising in the enlarged Anglican Communion.
In 1908 he presided at the Pan-Anglican congress held in London, and at the Lambeth conference which followed.
Of the numerous other churches, Evangelical, Roman Catholic and Anglican, none are of special interest.