An Angevin fleet and army, under Robert's son Charles, was defeated at Palermo by Giovanni da Chiaramonte in 1325, and in 1326 and 1327 there were further Angevin raids on the island, until the descent into Italy of the emperor Louis the Bavarian distracted their attention.
Justiciarius or justitiarius, a judge), in English history, the title of the chief minister of the Norman and earlier Angevin kings.
(1281), who recommenced persecuting the Ghibellines, excommunicated the Greek emperor, Michael Palaeologus, proclaimed a crusade against the Greeks, filled every appointment in the papal states with Charles's vassals, and reappointed the Angevin king senator of Rome.
"If thou art determined, 0 God, to destroy me," the unhappy Angevin exclaimed, "let my fall be gradual !"
In the meanwhile Ruggiero di Lauria appeared before Naples and destroyed another Angevin fleet commanded by Charles's son, who was taken prisoner (May 1284).
Louis, who had hoped that Aquitaine would descend to his daughters, was mortified and alarmed by the Angevin marriage; all the more so when Henry of Anjou succeeded to the English crown in 1154.
In 1199 she crushed an Angevin rising in favour of John's nephew, Arthur of Brittany.
Ramsay, Angevin Empire (London, 1903); K.
Norgate, England under the Angevin Kings (London, 1887); and A.
He had used threats against the recalcitrant bishops, and in the war against the Angevin party had demanded contributions from religious houses; these facts perhaps suffice to account for the verdict of the chronicler.
2 Henry II., as an Angevin, was the natural heir of the kingdom of Jerusalem on the extinction of the line descended from Fulk of Anjou.
It is said that Thomas distinguished himself by the ability with which he executed his commission; in any case it gave him a claim on the gratitude of the Angevin party which was not forgotten.
(1114) which saved Normandy in 1124; the detachment of the pope, Calixtus II., from the side of France and the Clito (1119), and the Angevin marriages which he arranged for his son William Aetheling (1119) and for the widowed empress Matilda (1129) after her brother's death.
But the marriage proved childless, and the empress Matilda was designated as her father's successor, the English baronage being compelled to do her homage both in 1126, and again, after the Angevin marriage, in 1131.
Thorpe, Oxford, 1857); Kate Norgate, England under the Angevin Kings, vol.
It first became a flourishing place under the Normans and during the crusades, but attained the acme of its prosperity as a seat of trade with the East under the Angevin princes.
Scores of towns, too, owe their origin and enlargement to the care of the Angevin princes, who were lavish of privileges and charters, and saw to it that the high-roads were clear of robbers.
Externally Hungary, under the Angevin kings, occupied a commanding position.
Later collections are Documents of the Angevin Period, ed.
The Angevin king was thereupon set free, leaving three of his sons and sixty Provencal nobles as hostages, promising to pay 30,000 marks and to return a prisoner if the conditions were not fulfilled within three years.
The new pope Boniface VIII., elected in 1294 at Naples under the auspices of King Charles, mediated between the latter and James, and a most dishonourable treaty was signed: James was to marry Charles's daughter Bianca and was promised the investiture by the pope of Sardinia and Corsica, while he was to leave the Angevin a free hand in Sicily and even to assist him if the Sicilians resisted.
Deputazione di Storia Patria Toscana has recently published a Codice diplomatico delle relazioni di Carlo d'Angib con la Toscana; the contents of the Angevin archives at Naples have been published by Durrien, Archives angevines de Naples (Toulouse, 1866-1867).
Des ecoles francaises d'Athenes et de Rome, fasc. 59), which contains many documents, and tends somewhat to rehabilitate the Angevin rule.
In his new position he was allowed, probably from regard to Aquitanian susceptibilities, to govern with an independence which was studiously denied to his brothers in their shares of the Angevin inheritance.
Norgate's England under the Angevin Kings, vol.
Ramsay's Angevin Empire (London, 1903); R.
His descendants seem to have been ousted from their possessions during the 12th century by Robert fitz Harding, an Angevin partisan, who already held the castle when, in 1153, Henry, duke of Normandy (who became King Henry II.
The Young (14th of April 1109-1129) succeeded to the countship of Maine on the death of Elias (11th of July I I io); but this increase of Angevin territory came into such direct collision with the interests of Henry I., king of England, who was also duke of Normandy, that a struggle between the two powers became inevitable.
For the loth, 1 1th and 12th centuries, a good summary will be found in Kate Norgate, England under the Angevin Kings (2 vols., London, 1887).
The Norman and Angevin kings were fully alive to the advantages which accrued to the people through borrowing at usury from the Jews, but they were also alive to the advantages which they themselves were able to reap by extorting from the Jews the wealth which the latter had acquired from the people.
In Hungaria (Budapest, 1887); Diplomas of the Angevin Period, edited by Imre Nagy (Hung.
And thus paved the way for the establishment of the Angevin dynasty on the throne of Naples.
But they still continued to desire the restoration of the Angevin dynasty in Sicily and to assist the designs of France on Aragon by preaching a crusade against the masters of Barcelona and Palermo.
The papacy, however, held its ground, and Nicholas III., the worthy continuer of Gregory, succeeded in preserving the union and triumphing over the Angevin power.
(Leipzig, 1899); Kate Norgate, England under the Angevin kings (London, 1887); and P. Scheffer-Boichorst, " Hat Papst Hadrian IV.
He was finally compelled to take up arms against his Kumanian friends, whom he routed at Hodmezd (May 1282) with fearful loss; but, previously to this, he had arrested the legate, whom he subsequently attempted to starve into submission, and his conduct generally was regarded as so unsatisfactory that, after repeated warnings, the Holy See resolved to supersede him by his Angevin kinsfolk, whom he had also alienated, and on the 8th of August 1288 Pope Nicholas IV.
See also Kate Norgate, England under the Angevin Kings (1887); Sir James Ramsay, Angevin Empire (1903); and C. E.
Amongst the older partisans of the Angevin house the most influential were Archbishop Theobald, whose good will guaranteed to Henry the support of the Church, and Nigel, bishop of Ely, who presided at the exchequer.
Norgate, England under the Angevin Kings (2 vols., London, 1887); Sir J.
Ramsay's The Angevin Empire (London, 1893); H.
PLANTAGENET, a surname conveniently, but unhistorically, applied to the royal line descended from the union of Geoffrey, count of Anjou, with the empress Maud, who are now styled by historians the Angevin house.
Ii.; Kate Norgate's Angevin Kings; Kitchin's Winchester.
The final result of the Angevin conquest of Sicily was its separation from the mainland.
Angevin oppression had brought together all Sicily in a common cause.
Pop. (1901) 10,369: Above the town is a castle erected by the Angevin kings, and strengthened at various periods.
The count of Ponthieu, as he was called in his boyhood, was betrothed in 1413 to Mary of Anjou, daughter of Louis II., duke of Anjou and king of Sicily, and spent the next two years at the Angevin court.
The indirect right acquired by the popes as lords paramount over this vast section of Italian territory gave occasion to all the most serious disturbances of Italy between the end of the 13th and the beginning of the 16th centuries, by the introduction of the house of Anjou into Naples and the disputed succession of Angevin and Aragonese princes, Roger I.
Although the southern Italians had long been ruled by foreigners, it was the Angevin domination which thoroughly denationalized them, and initiated that long period of corruption, decadence and foreign slavery which only ended in the 19th century.
Although the picturesque figures of Manfred and Conradin awakened sympathy among the people of the kingdom, their authority was never really consolidated and their German knights were hated; which facts rendered the enterprise of another foreigner like the Angevin comparatively easy.
His long strip of royal domain was hemmed in by the Angevin Empire on the west and by the kingdom of Arles on the south-east.