The chief cleruchies of Pericles are: Thracian Chersonese (453-452), Lemnos and Imbros, Andros, Naxos and Eretria (before 447); ' Brea in Thrace (446); Oreus (445); Amisus and Astacus in the Black Sea (after 440); Aegina (431).
The following are the chief islands: - Thasos, in the extreme north, off the Macedonian coast; Samothrace, fronting the Gulf of Saros; Imbros and Lemnos, in prolongation of the peninsula of Gallipoli (Thracian Chersonese); Euboea, the largest of all, lying close along the east coast of Greece; the Northern Sporades, including Sciathos, Scopelos and Halonesos, running out from the southern extremity of the Thessalian coast, and Scyros, with its satellites, north-east of Euboea; Lesbos and Chios; Samos and Nikaria; Cos, with Calymnos to the north; all off Asia Minor, with the many other islands of the Sporades; and, finally, the great group of the Cyclades, of which the largest are Andros and Tenos, Naxos and Paros.
In 1686 the colony submitted to Sir Edmund Andros, who had been commissioned governor of all New England, and chose representatives to sit in his council.
Sentiments of limited independence of the British government had been developing since the very beginning of the settlement (see Massachusetts), and their strength in 1689 had been strikingly exhibited in the local revolution of that year, when the royal governor, Sir Edmund Andros, and other high officials, were frightened into surrender and were imprisoned.
When Antigonus Gonatas threatened to restore Macedonian power in Greece, the Athenians, supported perhaps by the king of Egypt, formed a large defensive coalition; but in the ensuing " Chremonidean War " (266-263) a naval defeat off Andros led to their surrender and the imposition of a Macedonian garrison.
Its control of the Aegean was, however, contested not without success by the Antigonids, who won the two great sea-fights of Cos (c. 256) and Andros (227), and wrested the overlordship of the Cyclades from the Ptolemies.
- Population (1907) :-Syra 31,939 (communes, Hermoupolis 18,132, Mykonos 4589, Syra 9218); Andros 18,035 (Andros 8536, Arni 2166, Gaurio 2897, Corthion 443 6); Thera 19,597 (Thera 4226, Egiale 1513, Amorgos 2627, Anaphe 579, Emporium 2172, Therasia 679, los 2090, Kalliste 3519, Oea 2192); Ceos 11,032 (Ceos 3817, Dryopis 1628, Cythnos 1563, Seriphos 4024); Melos, 12,774 (Melos 4864, Adamas 529, Siphnos 3777, Kimolos 2015, Pholegandros 962, Sikinos 627); Naxos 25,185 (Naxos 2064, Apiranthe 2421, Vivlos 4343, Coronis 3205, Marpessa 1313, Naoussa 1670, Paros 3586, Tragea 4661, Hyrie 1922); Tenos 11,816 (Tenos 4697, Panorme 2658, Peree 2801, Sosthenion 1660).
The main islands and groups, beginning from the north-west, are as follows: Little and Great Abaco, with Great Bahama to the west; Eleuthera (a name probably corrupted from the Spanish Isla de Tierra), Cat, Watling, or Guanahani, and Rum Cay on the outer line towards the open ocean, with New Providence, the Exuma chain and Long Island forming an inner line to the west, and still farther west Andros (named from Sir Edmund Andros, governor of Massachusetts, &c., at the close of the 17th century; often spoken of as one island, but actually divided into several by narrow straits); and finally the Crooked Islands, Mayaguana and Inagua.
The surrounding seas are shallow for the most part, but there are three well-defined channels - the Florida or New Bahama channel, between the north-western islands and Florida, followed by the Gulf Stream, the Providence channels (north-east and north-west) from which a depression known as the Tongue of Ocean extends southward along the east side of Andros, and the Old Bahama channel, between the archipelago and Cuba.
The Andros islands have a length of 95 m.
In point of population the next most important islandisEleuthera (8733), followed by the Andros Islands (J347) and Cat Island (4658).
It is a remarkable fact that, except in the island of Andros, no streams of running water are to be found in the whole group. The inhabitants derive their water supply from wells.
On the island of Andros there is an extremely fine white marl almost resembling a chalky ooze.
Andros Island and the Abaco Islands may be specially noted for their profusion of large timber, including mahogany, mastic, lignum vitae, iron and bullet woods, and many others.
Side of Andros I.
The charter was suspended at the beginning of the Andros regime in 1686, but was restored again after the Revolution of 1689.
The moderation of the assessment is shown not only by the fact that it was paid so long without objection, but also by the individual items. Even in 425 Naxos and Andros paid only 15 talents, while Athens had just raised an eisphora (income tax) from her own citizens of 200 talents.
After more than half a century of struggle, the crown finally annulled the charter of the colony in 1684, though not until 1686 was the old government actually supplanted on the arrival of Joseph Dudley, a native of the colony, as president of a provisional council; later, Sir Edmund Andros was sent over with a commission to unite New York and New England under his rule.
The revocation of the charter aroused the strongest fears of the colonists Andros speedily met determined opposition by measures undertaken relative to taxation and land titles, by efforts to secure a church for Episcopal service, and an attempt to curb the town meetings.
His government was supported by a small party (largely an Anglican Church party), but was intensely unpopular with the bulk of the people; and - it is a disputed question, whether before or after news arrived of the landing in England of William of Orange - in April 1689 the citizens of Boston rose in revolution, deposed Andros, imprisoned him and re-established their old colonial form of government.
Sir Edmund Andros Simon Bradstreet .
Viii., 1819; on the Andros period, 1689-1691, see the Andros Tracts (3 vols., Prince Society Publications, v.-vii., Boston, 1868-1874), ed.
Andros in Massachusetts was received, they took possession on the 31st of May 1689 of Fort James (at the southern end of Manhattan Island), renamed it Fort William and announced their determination to hold it until the arrival of a governor commissioned by the new sovereigns.
A new charter was issued to the duke to perfect his title and Edmund (later Sir Edmund) Andros, the new governor, was instructed to establish English institutions and enforce English law in all sections.
In 1675 Andros established at Albany a commission for Indian affairs which long rendered important service in preserving the English-Iroquois alliance.
The imperious manner of Andros made him many enemies.
Representative assembly was accompanied with a refusal to pay the customs duties and so much other insubordination that the duke appointed Colonel Thomas Dongan to succeed Andros, and instructed him to call the desired assembly.
As well as for the erection of a stronger barrier against the French, and in 1688 New York and New Jersey were consolidated with the New England colonies into the Dominion of New England and placed under the viceregal authority of Sir Edmund Andros as governor-general.
1689 Andros was seized and imprisoned.
Lieutenant-governor was still in quiet possession of the government of New York, and a majority of the population of the province were satisfied to await the outcome of the revolution in the mother country, but in the southern portion of the province, especially in the City of New York and on Long Island, were a number of restless spirits who were encouraged by the fall of Andros to take matters into their own hands.
SIR EDMUND ANDROS (1637-1714), English colonial governor in America, was born in London on the 6th of December 1637, son of Amice Andros, an adherent of Charles I., and the royal bailiff of the island of Guernsey.
Andros was sent to England for trial in 1690, but was immediately released without trial, and from 1692 until 1698 he was governor of Virginia, but was recalled through the agency of Commissary James Blair, with whom he quarrelled.
See The Andros Tracts (3 vols., Boston, 1869-1872).
At Hartford occurred in 1687 the meeting of Edmund Andros and the Connecticut officials (see Connecticut).
1689 New Hampshire formed a part of the Dominion of New England, which, after the first few months, was under Sir Edmund Andros as governor-general.
John Cutt, president..1679-1681Richard Waldron, president..1681-1682Edward Cranfield, lieutenant-governor.1682-1685Walter Barefoot, deputy-governor.1685-1686Joseph Dudley, president of Council for New England.1686-1687Edmund Andros, governor-general of New England..1687-1689Without a government.1689-1690Nominally united with Massachusetts1690-1692Samuel Allen, governor.1692-1698Richard Coote, earl of Bellamont, governor1699-1701Joseph Dudley, governor.1702-1715Samuel Shute, governor..1716-1723John Wentworth, lieutenant-governor1723-1728William Burnett, governor1729-1730Jonathan Belcher, governor.1730-1741Benning Wentworth, governor.1741-1767John Wentworth, governor.
Z It appears from a letter from Mayhew to Governor Andros in 1675 that about 1641 Mayhew obtained a conveyance to Martha's Vineyard from Richard Vines, agent of Gorges.
To S.E., and it is traversed throughout its length by a mountain range, which forms part of the chain that bounds Thessaly on the E., and is continued south of Euboea in the lofty islands of Andros, Tenos and Myconos.
28 The south-western promontory was named Geraestus, the southeastern Caphareus; the latter, an exposed point, attracts the storms, which rush between it and the neighbouring cliffs of Andros as through a funnel.
The population of Euboea at the present day is made up of elements not less various, for many of the Greek inhabitants seem to have immigrated, partly from the mainland, and partly from other islands; and besides these, the southern portion is occupied by Albanians, who probably have come from Andros; and in the mountain districts nomad Vlach shepherds are found.
Were found at Grotta Ferrata, Andros and Oxford.
The burying-ground includes the tomb of Robert Treat (1622-1710), commander of the Connecticut troops in King Philip's War, leader of the company that founded Newark, New Jersey, governor of Connecticut (from 1683 to 1698) at the time its charter was demanded by Governor Andros in 1686-1687, and deputy-governor in1676-1683and 1698-1708; and also that of Jonathan Law (1674-1751), governor of Connecticut from 1742 to 1751.
1684-1687 Nathaniel Bacon, President of the Council 1687-1690 Francis Nicholson, Lieutenant Governor 1690-1692 Sir Edmund Andros, Governor..1692-1698Francis Nicholson, Lieutenant Governor.1698-17041 704-1737-1705-17061706-1710 1707-1710-17221722-1726-1726-17271727-1740-1737-17541740-1741-1741-17491 749 (June to Sept.)1749-1750-1750-17511751-1758125 1830-183418 34 -1836-1836-1837183 7 -1840-1840-184118411841-1842-1842-18431843-1846-1846-18491849-1852-1852-18561856-1860-1860-18641864-1865-1865-18671868-1870-1870-18741874-1878-1878-18821882-1886-1886-18901890-189418 94 -1898-1898-19021902-1906-1906-19101910 a large rectangular lawn and erected from a plan prepared by Thomas Jefferson, are noted for their architectural effect.
When Governor Andros and his Council in 1687 issued an order for levying a tax, a special town meeting of Ipswich promptly voted "that the s'd act doth infringe their Liberty as Free borne English subjects of His Majestic by interfearing with ye statutory Laws of the Land, By which it is enacted that no taxes shall be levied on ye Subjects without consent of an assembly chosen by ye Freeholders for assessing the same," and refused to assess the tax.
A temporary government was established at Boston in May 1686, with Joseph Dudley as president, and in December of the same year Edmund Andros arrived with a commission and instructions which were a copy of those to the governor of New York and made him governor of all New England except Rhode Island and Connecticut.
Rhode Island offered no resistance to the writ against its charter and Andros extended his authority over it immediately after his arrival.
Finally, a new commission to Andros, issued in April 1688, extended his jurisdiction over New York and the Jerseys, and the whole region over which he was made governor by this instrument was named "Our Territory and Dominion of New England in America."
But the English Revolution of 1688 inspired a revolt in New England by which Andros was deposed in April 1689.
He became a leader in the opposition to Sir Edmund Andros, to his secretary Edward Randolph, and to Governor Joseph Dudley.
Was on the 9th of January 1689; he was active in influencing the Commons to vote (1689) that the New England charters should be restored; and he published A Narrative of the Miseries of New-England, By Reason of an Arbitrary Government Erected there Under Sir Edmund Andros (1688), A Brief Relation for the Confirmation of Charter Privileges (1691), and other pamphlets.