The only Latin countries in which conflict has not arisen appear to be the principality of Andorra and the republic of San Marino (Giron y Areas, SituaciOn juridica de la Iglesia Catolica, Madrid, 1905, p. 173 et seq.).
Next in importance comes a mountain range, but here there is often difficulty as to the definition of the actual crest-line, and mountain ranges being broad regions, it may happen that a small independent state, like Switzerland or Andorra, occupies the mountain valleys between two or more great countries.
Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar
Leibnitz, discussing this subject in his Tractatus de jure suprematus (Opera, 4.362), says: "Itaque valde etiam dubito, an possit Reipublicae illi Italiae, quam vocant Sancti Marini oppidum, concedi suprematus, tametsi jure liberam esse nemo negat," a remark which would apply also to the republic of Andorra: "Illi tantum vocantur souverains ou potentats, qui territorium majus habent, exercitumque educere possunt; atque hoc demum illud est, quod ego voco suprematum, et Gallos quoque arbitror, cum de rebus ad jus gentium spectantibus, pace, bello, foederibus sermo est, et ipsi aliquos vocant souverains, eos non de urbibus liberis loqui, nec exiguorum territoriorum dominis, quae facile dives Mercator sibi emere potest, sed de majoribus illis potestatibus, quae bellum inferre, bellum sustinere, propria quodammodo vi stare, foedera pangere, rebus aliarum gentium cum auctoritate intervenire possunt" (4.359).
By France and Andorra, E.
Seo de Urgel, near the headwaters of the Segre, is a fortified city which has been an episcopal see since 840, and has had a close historical connexion with Andorra (q.v.).
Of the first, the chief are: (a) that of Cracow, which was recognized by the Treaty of Vienna as an independent state, and placed under the protection of Russia: it was incorporated with Austria in 1846; (b) Andorra, protected by Spain and France as successors of the counts of ' Foix (See Andorra); (c) the Ionian Islands, placed under the protection of Great Britain by the Treaty of Paris of 1815.