Owing to its position on two important railways, Alcazar has a flourishing transit-trade in the wines of Estremadura and Andalusia; the soda and alkali of La Mancha are used in the manufacture of soap; and gunpowder, chocolate and inlaid daggers are also made here.
He then hurried back to Andalusia where he joined the sovereigns, who were now besieging Granada, which he entered with the conquering army in January 1492 and built there a convent of his order.
But the reconquest of Andalusia by the Christians associated towards the end of the 15th century with the establishment of the Inquisition, introduced a spirit of intolerance which led to the expulsion of the Jews and Moors.
The men of Cadiz compelled the French warships to surrender, and the levies of Andalusia, closing around Dupont, compelled him and some 23,000 men to lay down their arms at Baylen (23rd of July).
It is considered that with facilities for irrigation Andalusia could produce 150,000 bales annually.
Spanish levies, numbering nearly ioo,000 regulars and militia, brave and enthusiastic, but without organization, sufficient training, or a commander-in-chief, had collected together; 30,000 being in Andalusia, a similar number in Galicia, and others in Valencia and Estremadura, but few in the central portion of Spain.
On the 7th of June 1808 he had sacked Cordova; but while he was laden with its spoils the Spanish general Castanos with the army of Andalusia (30,000), and also a large body of armed peasantry, approached.
The British troops were directed towards Lisbon and Cadiz, in order to secure these harbours, to prevent the subjugation of Andalusia, and to operate up the basins of the Guadiana, Tagus and Douro into Spain.
30) and in another action stormed the Retiro commanding Madrid itself (Dec. 3); that the French were pressing on towards Lisbon and Andalusia; that Napoleon was unaware of his vicinity, and that Soult's corps, isolated on the Carrion River, had been ordered towards Benavente.
Napoleon, directly he realized Moore's proximity, had ordered Soult to Astorga to cut him off from Galicia; recalled his other troops from their march towards Lisbon and Andalusia, and, with 50,000 men and 150 guns, had left Madrid himself (Dec. 22).
When the troops landed in England, half clothed and half shod, their leader's conduct of the campaign was at first blamed, but his reputation as a general rests solidly upon these facts, that when Napoleon in person, having nearly 300,000 men in Spain, had stretched forth his hand to seize Portugal and Andalusia, Moore with 30,000, forced him to withdraw it, and follow him to Corunna, escaping at the same time from his grasp. Certainly a notable achievement.
The French, still numbering nearly 200,000, now held the following positions: the Army of the North - Dorsenne (48,000) - was about the Pisuerga, in the Asturias, and along the northern coast; the Army of Portugal - Marmont (50,000) - mainly in the valley of the Tagus, but ordered to Salamanca; the Army of the South - Soult (55,000) - in Andalusia; the Army of the Centre - Joseph (ig,000) - about Madrid.
26), and evacuating Andalusia joined Suchet with some 55,000 men.
In addition to the decisive victory of Salamanca, Madrid had been occupied, the siege of Cadiz raised, Andalusia freed, and Ciudad Rodrigo and Badajoz stormed.
In the course of the 12th century the writings of these men were introduced into France by the Jews of Andalusia, of Marseilles and Montpellier.
Riego now started on a revolutionary propaganda through Andalusia at the head of his regiment.
With it'hie sailed from Palos in Andalusia on the 3rd of August 1492, reached Guanahani on the 12th of October, touched on the coast of Cuba and Hispaniola, established a small post on the latter, and returned to Lisbon on the 4th of March 1493, and thence to Spain.
ANDALUSIA, or Andalucia, a captaincy-general, and formerly a province, of southern Spain; bounded on the N.
Andalusia was divided in 1833 into the eight provinces of Almeria, Cadiz, Cordova, Granada, Jaen, Huelva, Malaga and Seville, which are described in separate articles.
Andalusia consists of a great plain, the valley of the Guadalquivir, shut in by mountain ranges on every side except the S.W., where it descends to the Atlantic. This lowland, which is known as Andalucia Baja, or Lower Andalusia, resembles the valley of the Ebro in its slight elevation above sea-level (300-400 ft.), and in the number of brackish lakes or fens, and waste lands (despoblados) impregnated with salt, which seem to indicate that the whole surface was covered by the sea at no distant geological date.
Andalusia has never been, like Castile or Aragon, a separate kingdom.
The Punic wars transferred the supreme power from Carthage to Rome, and Latin civilization was established firmly when, in 27 B.C., Andalusia became the Roman province of Baetica - so called after its great waterway, the Baetis (Guadalquivir).
In the 16th and 17th centuries, painting replaced architecture as the distinctive art of Andalusia; and many of the foremost Spanish painters, including Velazquez and Murillo, were natives of this province.
Andalusia is still famous for its bull-fighters; and every outlying hamlet has its legends of highwaymen and contraband.
By Andalusia, W.
Castilian, which is the literary language of Spain, and with certain differences, of Spanish America, is spoken in Old and New Castile, Aragon, Estremadura, and the greater part of Leon; in Andalusia it is subject to various modifications of accent and pronunciation.
As there is little, if any, difference of racial origin, character and physical type, among the inhabitants of this region, except in Andalusia, and, to a less extent, in Estremadura, the Castilian is justly regarded as the typical Spaniard.
Apart from the peasant class, Castilians have contributed more to the development of Spanish art and literature than the inhabitants of any other region except, perhaps, Andalusia, which claims to be regarded as supreme in architecture and painting.
The archipelago was included for administrative purposes in the captaincy-general of Andalusia until 1833, when it was made a separate province.
At the same time efforts were made to stamp out all liberal culture in Andalusia, so far as it went beyond the little medicine, arithmetic and astronomy required for practical life.
A small military post had existed there since 1717, but efforts to create a town had been fruitless until Zabala offered to make hidalgos of the first settlers and to give them cattle and sheep. The first families to accept this offer came from the Canary Islands in 1726 under the direction of Don Francisco Alzeibar; they were followed by others from Andalusia and some of the Spanish-American settlements.
He obeyed after having appointed his son Abdalaziz governor of Andalos (Andalusia), as the Arabs named the peninsula, and assigned Seville as his residence.
A man of wide learning and culture, he encouraged the settlement of Jewish scholars in Andalusia, and his patronage of literature, science and art promoted the Jewish renaissance in Europe.
This type was the creation of the Moors in Andalusia, and the Jews ably seconded the Mahommedans in the effort to make life at once broad and deep. (I.
After going home to Tangier, Ibn Batuta crossed into Spain and made the round of Andalusia, including Gibraltar, which had just then stood a siege from the "Roman tyrant Adfunus" (Alphonso XI.
The most important wine produced in the province of Andalusia, which is the chief vine-growing district of Spain, is that known to.
While the most important Spanish wines are those grown in the southern province of Andalusia, the central and northern districts also produce wine in considerable quantity, and much of this is of very fair quality.
Probably in the month of May 428 he assembled all his people on the shore of Andalusia, and numbering the males among them from the greybeard down to the newborn infant found them to amount to 80,000 souls.
The president, Salmeron, after showing much indecision, resigned, but not until he had recalled the general in command in Andalusia, Pavia.
The native dances, slow but not ungraceful, and more restrained than those of Andalusia or the south of France, are obviously Moorish in origin, and depend for their main effects on the movement of the arms and body.
In 1810 he invaded Andalusia, which he speedily reduced, with the exception of Cadiz.
In 1812, however, he was obliged, after Wellington's great victory of Salamanca, to evacuate Andalusia, and was soon after recalled from Spain at the request of Joseph Bonaparte, with whom, as with the other marshals, he had always disagreed.
The incitement came, however, not from the people, but from the prince: it was in the light of court favour that the colleges of Bagdad and Nishapur first came to attract students from every quarter, from the valleys of Andalusia as well as the upland plains of Transoxiana.
The same phenomena were repeated in Spain under the Mahommedan rulers of Andalusia and Morocco, with this difference, that the time of philosophical development was shorter, and the heights to which Spanish thinkers soared were greater.
The reign of al-Hakam the Second (96197 6) inaugurated in Andalusia those scientific and philosophical studies which were simultaneously prosecuted by the Society of Basra.
In the south the descent from the table-land to the valley of the Guadalquivir is again comparatively gradual, but even here in the eastern half of the Sierra Morena the passes are few, the most important being the Puerto de Despeflaperros, where the Rio Magana, a sub-tributary of the Guadalimar, has cut for itself a deep gorge through which the railway ascends from Andalusia to Madrid.
Between Andalusia and Estremadura farther west the communication is freer, the Sierra Morena being broken.
The Guadiana (510 m.) passes west and south through La Mancha and Andalusia to fall into Cadiz Bay at Ayamonte; and the Guadalquivir (360 m.) takes a similar direction from its headwaters in Jaen to Sanlucar de Barrameda, where it also enters Cadiz Bay farther south.
The oldest Palaeozoi strata are referred, from their included fossils, to the Cambrian Ordovician and Silurian systems. They range through a vas region of Andalusia, Estremadura, Castile, Salamanca, Leon arii Asr,urias, and along the flanks of the Pyrenean and Cantabria~ chain.
- These strata are overlain by members of the Jurassic series, which are especially conspicuous in the eastern part of the peninsula between Castile and Aragon, along the Mediterranean border, in Andalusia, and likewise along the flanks of the Pyrenees.
The Jurassic of Andalusia belongs to the Mediterranean facies of the system; the Jurassic of the rest of Spain is more nearly allied to that of northwestern Europe.
These strata are developed in the basin of the Ebro, and in a belt which extends from Valencia through Murcia and Andalusia to Cadiz.
The Tertiary strata of Andalusia are specially noteworthy for containing the native silver of Herrerias, which is found in a Pliocene bed in the form of flukes, needles and crystals.
The last four rocks occur as a volcanic series distributed in three chief districtsthat of Cape Gata, including the south-east of Andalusia and the south of Murcia, that of Catalonia, and that of La Mancha.
The southern zone, to which the name of African has been given, embraces the whole of Andalusia as far as the Sierra Morena, the southern half of Murcia and the province of Alicante.
Six considerable steppe regions are counted: (I) that of Old Castile, situated to the south of Valladolid, and composed chiefly of hills of gypsum; (2) that of New Castile, in the south-east (including parts of La Mancha); (3) the Aragonese, occupying the upper part of the basin of the Ebro; (4) the littoral, stretching along the south-east coast from Alicante to the neighborhood of Almeria; (5) the Granadine, in the east of Upper Andalusia (the former kingdom of Granada); and (6) the Baetic, in Lower Andalusia, on both sides of the valley of the Jenil or Genii.
Other birds peculiar to the south are two species of quails, the Andalusian hemipode (Turnix sylvatica), confined to the plains of Andalusia, the southern shearwater (Puffinus cinereus), and other water-birds.
The first Spanish census was made in 1594, Pontevedra but some of the provinces now included in the Andalusia (And kingdom were not embraced in the enumera- Almeria tion, so that the total population assigned to Granada -
Aragon and Estremadura, the two most thinly peopled of all the old provinces, and the eastern half of Andalusia (above Seville), have all suffered particularly in this manner, later occupiers never having been able to rival the Moors in overcoming the sterility of nature, as in Aragon, or in taking advantage of its fertility, as in Andalusia and the Tierra de Barros.
Such plains in Valencia and Murcia are known by the Spanish name of huertas (gardens), in Andalusia by the Arabic name of Vegas, which has the same meaning.
Oranges and lemons, excluded from the plateau by the severity of the Winter cold, are grown in great quantities on the plains of Andalusia and all round the Mediterranean coast; the peel of the bigarade or bitter orange is exported to Holland for the manufacture of curacao; and figs, almonds, pomegranates, carobs and other southern fruits are also grown abundantly in all the warmer parts, the first two even in central Spain and the more sheltered parts of the northern maritime provinces.
Their winter quarters are in the lower parts of Leon and Estremadura, La Mancha, and the lowlands of Andalusia, their summer quarters the more mountainous districts to the east and north (Plasencia in the province of Cceres, Avila, Segovia, Cuenca, Valencia), which are not so much affected by the summer droughts of the Peninsula.
With liberty of conscience during the Revolution, from 1868 to 1877, the Church lost ground, and anti-clerical ideas prevailed for a while in the centres of republicanism in Catalonia and Andalusia; but a reaction set in with the Restoration.
The south, indeed, and in particular the fertile valley of Andalusia, the region of the Guadaiquivir (Baetis), then called Baetica, was from the first fairly peaceful.
All the land was lost in the next few years, partly by the revolt of the local farmers.