Ancyra was the centre of the Tectosages, one of the three Gaulish tribes which settled in Galatia in the 3rd century B.C., and became the capital of the Roman province of Galatia when it was formally constituted in 25 B.C. During the Byzantine period, throughout which it occupied a position of great importance, it was captured by Persians and Arabs; then it fell into the hands of the Seljuk Turks, was held for eighteen years by the Latin Crusaders, and finally passed to the Ottoman Turks in 1360.
At Ancyra (about 235 ?) Seleucus sustained a crushing defeat and left the country beyond the Taurus to his brother and the other powers of the peninsula.
The only man who tried to shake off the theological influence of Origen was Marcellus of Ancyra, who did not succeed in producing any lasting effect on theology.
Meanwhile the Palmyrenes were pushing their influence not only in Egypt but in Asia Minor; they contrived to establish garrisons as far west as Ancyra and even Chalcedon opposite Byzantium, while still professing to act under the terms of the joint rule conferred by Gallienus.
In 189 B.C. Ancyra was occupied by Cn.
- An important ecclesiastical synod was held at Ancyra, the seat of the Roman administration for the province of Galatia, in A.D.
For as Athanasius and Marcellus of Ancyra appeared on the scene, and the Western bishops declined to exclude them, the Eusebian bishops of the East absolutely refused to discuss, and contented themselves with formulating a written protest addressed to numerous foreign prelates.
314 the thirteenth canon of Ancyra (for the true reading see Bishop Wordsworth's Ministry of Grace, p. 140) assumes that city presbyters may with the bishop's leave ordain other presbyters.
From these treatises we learn that the adherents of the new prophecy were very numerous in Phrygia, Asia and Galatia (Ancyra), that they had tried to defend themselves in writing from the charges brought against them (by Miltiades), that they possessed a fully developed independent organization, that they boasted of many martyrs, and that they were still formidable to the Church in Asia Minor.
Marcellus, the exiled bishop of Ancyra, is quoted by Epiphanius as presenting it to Bishop Julius of Rome c. A.D.
Ussher's recognition of the fact that this profession of faith by Marcellus was the creed of Rome, not of Ancyra, is the starting-point of modern discussions of the history of the creeds.
On this point the provincial synods of Illiberis (Elvira) in 305 and of Ancyra in 315 subsequently came to conflicting decisions, the council of Elvira forbidding the reception of offenders into communion during life, and the council of Ancyra fixing a limit to the penalty in the same cases.
(I) Basil, bishop of Ancyra from 336 to 360, a semiArian, highly favoured by the emperor Constantine, and a great polemical writer; none of his works are extant.
(3) Basil of Ancyra, fl.
Three pre-Christian or extra-ecclesiastical usages are recorded by a half-heretical churchman, Marcellus of Ancyra (in Eusebius of Caesarea, Contra Marcellum, i.
Larger synods representing the churches of a number of contiguous provinces also met frequently; for instance, in the early 4th century at Elvira, Ancyra, Neo-Caesarea and Arles, the last representing the entire Western world.
At George's instigation the second Sirmian formula (promulgated by the third council of' Sirmium 3S7), which was conciliatory towards strict Arianism, was opposed at the council of Ancyra in 358 (Harnack, Hist.
Of Ancyra southwards to the N.
The tribes were settled where they afterwards remained, the Tectosages round Ancyra, the Tolistobogii round Pessinus, and the Trocmi round Tavium.
In the 1st century, when St Paul made his missionary journeys, even the towns Ancyra, Pessinus and Tavium (where Gauls were few) were not Hellenized, though Greek, the language of government and trade, was spoken there; while the rural population was unaffected by Greek civilization.
During his return to Constantinople Jovian was found dead in his bed at Dadastana, halfway between Ancyra and Nicaea.
The case of Paul of Samosata, c. 265, and the Synod of Ancyra in Galatia, c. 314).
Like Ancyra and Tavium, Pessinus was Romanized first and' Hellenized afterwards.
Antioch became the capital and court-city of the western Seleucid empire under Antiochus I., its counterpart in the east being Seleucia-on-Tigris; but its paramount importance dates from the battle of Ancyra (240 B.C.), which shifted the Seleucid centre of gravity from Asia Minor, and led indirectly to the rise of Pergamum.
From Serai Keui); (7) Colossae (near Chonas); (8) Ceretapa Diocaesarea (Kayadibi); (9) Themisonium (Karayuk Bazar); (IO) Tacina (Yarishli); (II) Sanaus (Sari Ka y ak, in Daz Kiri); (12) Dionysopolis (Orta Keui); (13) Anastasiopolis, originally a village of the Hyrgaleis (Utch Kuyular); (14) Attanassus (Eski Aidan); (15) Lunda (Eski Seid); (16) Peltae (Karayashlar); (17) Eumenea (Ishekli); 08) Siblia (Homa); (19) Pepuza (Duman or Suretli); (20) Bria (Bourgas); (21) Sebaste (Sivasli); (22) Eluza or Aludda (Hadj imlar); (23) Acmonia (Ahat Keui); (24) Alia (Kirka); (25) Siocharax (Otourak), (26) Dioclea (Dola); (27) Aristium (Karaj Euren, in Sitchanli Ova); (28) Cidyessus (Geukche Eyuk); (29) Apia (Abia); (30) Cotyaeum (Kutaiah); (31) Aezani (Tchavdir Hissar); (32) Tiberiopolis (Amed); (33) Cadoi (Gediz); (34) Ancyra (Kilisse Keui) (35) Synaus (Simav); (36) Flaviopolis Temenothyrae (Ushak); (37) Trajanopolis Grimenothyrae (Giaour Euren, near Orta Keui); (38) Blaundus (Suleimanli).
In Asia Minor Palmyrene garrisons were established as far west as Ancyra in Galatia and Chalcedon opposite Byzantium, and Zenobia still professed to be acting in the interests of the Roman rule.
Towards the end of 271 he marched through Asia Minor and, overthrowing the Palmyrene garrisons in Chalcedon, Ancyra and Tyana, he reached Antioch, where the main Palmyrene army under Zabda and Zabbai, with Zenobia herself, attempted to oppose his way.
In the 4th century this and the allied doctrine of Marcellus of Ancyra were frequently confounded, so that it is exceedingly difficult to arrive at a clear account of it in its genuine form.
Ancyra, 1867); R.
SYNOD OF NEO-CAESAREA, a synod held shortly after that of Ancyra, probably about 314 or 315 (although Hefele inclines to put it somewhat later).
GORDIUM, an ancient city of Phrygia situated on the Persian "Royal road" from Pessinus to Ancyra, and not far from the Sangarius.
Dorner's earlier view); impersonal pre-existence of the Logos, who became personal - compare and contrast Marcellus of Ancyra - at the Incarnation (W.
2 The council of Ancyra in 314, on the other hand, found it necessary to legislate in a somewhat different direction, - by its 14th canon enjoining its priests and clerks at least to taste meat at the love feasts.
His strict orthodoxy on the subject of the Trinity and the Incarnation, together with his vigorous eloquence, combined to make him peculiarly obnoxious to the Arian faction, which was at that time in the ascendant through the protection of the emperor Valens; and in 375, the synod of Ancyra, convened by Demetrius the Arian governor of Pontus, condemned him for alleged irregularities in his election and in the administration of the finances of his diocese.
The first example seems to be that of the province of Pontus, where after the twenty canons of Nicaea were placed the twentyfive canons of the council of Ancyra (314), and the fifteen of that of Neocaesarea (315-3 20).
As thus defined, the collection contains the following documents: firstly, the eighty-five Apostolic Canons, the Constitutions having been put aside as having suffered heretical alterations; secondly, the canons of the councils of Nicaea, Ancyra, Neocaesarea, Gangra, Antioch, Laodicea, Constantinople (381), Ephesus (the disciplinary canons of this council deal with the reception of the Nestorians, and were not communicated to the West), Chalcedon, Sardica, Carthage (that of 4 19, according to Dionysius), Constantinople (394); thirdly, the series of canonical letters of the following great bishops - Dionysius of Alexandria, Peter of Alexandria (the Martyr), Gregory Thaumaturgus, Athanasius, Basil, Gregory of Nyssa, Gregory of Nazianzus, Amphilochus of Iconium, Timotheus of Alexandria, Theophilus of Alexandria, Cyril of Alexandria, Gennadius of Constantinople; the canon of Cyprian of Carthage (the Martyr) is also mentioned, but with the note that it is only valid for Africa.
Of Eusebius' dogmatic and polemic writings, we still have two works against his contemporary, Marcellus, bishop of Ancyra, the one known as Contra Marcellum, the other as De theologia ecclesiastica.
Mithradates was at the battle of Ancyra (c. 241), in which he assisted Antiochus Hierax against his brother Seleucus Callinicus, in spite of the fact that he had married the daughter of the latter with Greater Phrygia as her dowry.