Dupin de Francueil, a good representative of the ancien regime.
- At the end of 1910 the Russian revolution, which seemed at one time to promise an overturn as complete as that of the ancien regime in France, would seem to have entered on a path of orderly and conservative development, and it is possible, now that the smoke of combat has cleared away, to form some estimate of the forces through the interplay of which this result has been achieved.
These with a host of lesser dignities built up the imperial hierarchy and enabled the court quickly to develop on the lines of the old monarchy, so far as rules of etiquette and self-conscious efforts could reproduce the courtly graces of the ancien regime.
The leader of modern historians, he was in truth a man of the ancien regime.
His SOD, Edouard Constant Biot (1803-1850), after amassing a competence from railway engineering, turned to the study of Chinese subjects, and published Causes de l'abolition de l'esclavage ancien en occident (1840); Dictionnaire des noms anciens et modernes des villes et des arrondissements compris dans l'empire chinois (1842); Essai sur l'histoire de l'instruction publique en Chine et de la corporation des lettres (1847); Memoire sur les colonies militaires et agricoles des chinois (1850).
Yanoski, De l'abolition de l'esclavage ancien au moyen age et de sa transformation en servitude de la glebe (Wallon and Yanoski had jointly composed a memoir to compete for a prize offered by the Academy of Moral and Political Sciences in 1837; Wallon's portion of the memoir became the foundation of his Histoire de l'esclavage dans l'antiquite above mentioned; Yanoski's part, the expansion of which was prevented by his early death, was posthumously published in 1860; it is no more than a slight sketch); Benjamin Gubrard, Prolegomenes au Polyptyque d'Irminon (1844); Fustel de Coulanges, Histoire des institutions politiques de l'ancienne France (2nd ed., 1877), and Recherches sur quelques problemes d'histoire (1885) (the latter work contains an admirable discussion of the whole subject of the colonatus, founded throughout on the original texts); Stubbs, Constitutional History of England (3 vols., 1874-1878).
Tourmagne, entitled respectively Histoire de l'esclavage ancien et moderne (1880) and Histoire du servage ancien et moderne (1879), which bring together many facts relating to slavery and serfdom; but they are somewhat loose and uncritical; the author, too, repeats himself much, and dwells on many topics scarcely if at all connected with his main themes; see also H.
In the administration of the ancien regime the term "prefect" was not employed; practically the only case in which it occurs was in the organization of the establishment of institutions opened by the religious orders, in which there was generally a "prefect of the studies" (prefet des etudes).
The intendants of provinces of the ancien regime were taken as a model, and there is a great resemblance between their respective functions.
In these districts there were cadastres, or compoixterriers (land registers), which allowed of a non-arbitrary assessment; and at the end of the ancien regime merely needed revision.
These Napoleonic countships, increased under subsequent reigns, have produced a plentiful crop of titles of little social significance, and have tended to lower the status of the counts deriving from the ancien regime.
He became secretary to the Assembly, and the violence of his attacks on the ancien regime won him the nickname of "Crieur de la Marne."
Les Arts (1902); Gazette des beaux-arts (1859), monthly, with Chronique des arts; Revue de fart ancien et moderne (1897) monthly; L'Art decoratif, monthly, Art et decoration, monthly; L'Art pour tous, monthly; La Decoration, monthly; L'Architecture- journal of the Soc. centrale des Architectes francais, weekly; L'Art (1875) is no longer published.
This new and obedient legislature, to which only nineteen liberals were returned, made itself into a septennial parliament, thus providing time, it was thought, to restore some part of the ancien regime.
At the end of the ancien regime it formed part of the "Gouvernement" of Guienne, and at the Revolution it was incorporated in the department of Lotet-Garonne, of which it constitutes nearly the whole.
His life throws light on some phases of the ancien regime which are often overlooked by historians.
After a visit to his uncle, the archbishop of Reims, he returned to St Sulpice to finish his preliminary training for the church, but in his spare time he read the works of Montesquieu, Voltaire, and other writers who were beginning to undermine the authority of the ancien regime, both in church and state.
Alexander was driven into transports of rage by this championship of the ancien regime by one who had been a servant of its bitterest foe.
Chevalier,, Le Mexique ancien et moderne (Paris, 1886); A.
The most important of his works are: Nouvel Essai de logique (1712), Giometrie des lignes et des surfaces rectilignes et circulaires (1712), Traite du beau (1714), Examen du traiti de la liberte de penser d'Antoine Collins (1718), De l'education des enfants (1722, dedicated to the then Princess of Wales), Examen du pyrrhonisme ancien et moderne (1733, an attack chiefly on Bayle), Examen de l'essai de M.
The Ancien Regime >>
He devoted most of his life to researches among the archives of his native city, and in 1656 even obtained a licence to print his Paris ancien et moderne; but on his death (21st March 1676) the whole work was still in manuscript.
In 1789 he was elected a member of the states-general by the clergy of the bailliage of Peronne, and from the first proved to be the most able and persevering defender of the ancien regime, although he had drawn up the greater part of the cahier of the clergy of Peronne, which contained a considerable programme of reform.
There were, under the ancien regime, three classes of dukes in France: (1) dukes who were peers (see Peerage) and had a seat in the parlement of Paris; (2) hereditary dukes who were not peers; (3) "brevet" dukes, created for life only.
1706), the king's lieutenant at the Bastille, from which we learn that on the 18th of September 1698 a new governor, Benigne D'Auvergne de Saint-Mars, arrived from the fortress of the Isles Ste Marguerite (in the bay of Cannes), bringing with him "un ancien prisonnier qu'il avait 'a' Pignerol" (Pinerolo, in Piedmont), whom he kept always masked and whose name remained untold.
"Marchioly" in the burial register of Saint Paul naturally suggests indeed at first that the "ancien prisonnier" taken by Saint-Mars to the Bastille in 1698 was Mattioli, Saint-Mars himself, sometimes 1 Barbezieux to Saint-Mars, May To, 1694: "J'ai recu la lettre que vous avez pris la peine de m'ecrire le 29 du mois passe; vous pouvez, suivant que vous le proposez, faire mettre dans la prison voiltee le valet du prisonnier qui est mort."
Subsequently Barbezieux and the governor continue to write to one another about their "ancien prisonnier" 1 He cites Bingham's Bastille, i.
When, therefore, we come to Saint-Mars's appointment to the Bastille in 1698, Dauger appears almost certainly to be the "ancien prisonnier" he took with him.'
Assuming the words here, "as he is only a valet," to refer to Dauger, and taking into account the employment of Dauger from 1675 to 1680 as Fouquet's valet, Mr Lang now obtains a solution of the problem of why a mere valet should be a political Funck-Brentano argues that "un ancien prisonnier qu'il avait a Pignerol" (du Junca's words) cannot apply to Dauger, because then du Junca would have added "et a Exiles."
Funck-Brentano also insists that the references to the "ancien prisonnier" in 1696 and 1697 must be to Mattioli, giving ancien the meaning of "late" or "former" (as in the phrase "ancien ministre"), and regarding it as an expression pertinent to Mattioli, who had been at Pignerol with Saint-Mars but not at Exiles, and not to Dauger, who had always been with SaintMars.
But when he attempts to force du Junca's phrase "un ancien prisonnier qu'il avait a Pignerol" into this sense, he is straining language.
The natural interpretation of the word ancien is simply "of old standing," and Barbezieux's use of it, coming after Louvois's phrase in 1691, clearly points to Dauger being meant.
In this connexion it may be remarked (and this is a point on which Funck-Brentano entirely misinterprets the allusion) that, even in his capacity as valet to Fouquet, Dauger was still regarded an as exceptional sort of prisoner; for in 1679 when Fouquet and Lauzun were afterwards allowed to walk freely all over the citadel, Louvois impresses on Saint-Mars that "le nomme Eustache" is never to be allowed to be in Fouquet's room when Lauzun or any other stranger, or anybody but Fouquet and the "ancien valet," La Riviere, is there, and that he is to stay in Fouquet's room when the latter goes out to walk in the citadel, and is only to go out walking with Fouquet and La Riviere when they promenade in the special part of the fortress previously set apart for them (Louvois's letter to SaintMars, Jan.
See Michel Stourdza et son administration (Brussels, 1834); Michel Stourdza, ancien prince regnant de Moldavie (Paris, 1874); A.
Jackson (Zoroaster, the Prophet of Ancien Iran, 1901) sides with West.
After several half-hearted attempts directed in the course of Nicholas I.'s reign to face the question while safeguarding at the same time the rights and privileges of the old aristocracy, the moral collapse of the ancien regime during the Crimean war brought about the Emancipation Act of the 19th of February 1861, by which some 15 millions of serfs were freed from bondage.
Blanc de Lanautte, Memoire sur l'etat ancien et actuel de la Moldavie, presente d S.A.S.