The early Ionian physicists, including Thales, Anaximander and Anaximenes, seek to explain the world as generated out of a primordial matter (Gr.
The doctrine of Anaximenes, who unites the conceptions of a determinate and indeterminate original substance adopted by Thales and Anaximander in the hypothesis of a primordial and all-generating air, is a clear advance on these theories, inasmuch as it introduces the scientific idea of condensation and rarefaction as the great generating or transforming agencies.
Anaximenes seems to have inclined to a view of cosmic evolution as throughout involving a quasi-spiritual factor.
Like Anaximenes, he believed air to be the one source of all being, and all other substances to be derived from it by condensation and rarefaction.
His chief advance upon the doctrines of Anaximenes is that he asserted air, the primal force, to be possessed of intelligence- "the air which stirred within him not only prompted, but instructed.
66; Anaximenes of Lampsacus in Steph.
Anaximenes, a pupil of Anaximander, was the first to reject the view that the earth was a circular plane, but held it to be an oblong rectangle, buoyed up in the midst of the heavens by the compressed air upon which it rested.
ANAXIMENES, of Miletus, Greek philosopher in the latter half of the 6th century, was probably a younger contemporary of Anaximander, whose pupil or friend he is said to have been.
Anaximenes made air the primordial substance, and it was one of the Aristotelian elements.
Historians (to): Thucydides, Herodotus, Xenophon, Philistius, Theopompus, Ephorus, Anaximenes, Callisthenes, Hellanicus, Polybius.
ANAXIMENES, of Lampsacus (ft.
The Rhetorica ad Alexandrum, usually included among the works of Aristotle, is now generally admitted to be by Anaximenes, although some consider it a much later production (edition by Spengel, 1847).
Anaximenes of Miletus >>
[Ascribed to Anaximenes of Lampsacus (fl.
It remained for Spengel to entitle the work Anaximenis Ars Rhetorica in his edition of 1847, and thus substitute for the name of the philosopher Aristotle that of the sophist Anaximenes on his title-page.
4), and Anaximenes recognized only the deliberative and the judicial (Dionys.
In order, however, to impute the whole work to Anaximenes, Spengel took one of the most inexcusable steps ever taken in the history of scholarship. Without any manuscript authority he altered the very first words " three genera " (T pia -yin) into " two genera " (Suo -ybni), and omitted the words " one declamatory " (rO SE E7rLSEtKrucOv).
4) imputes to Anaximenes two genera, deliberative and judicial, and seven species, " hortandi, dehortandi, laudandi, vituperandi, accusandi, defendendi, exquirendi, quod E ETaaTthov dicit."
As then Anaximenes did not, but Aristotle did, recognize three genera, and as Aristotle could as well as Anaximenes recognize seven species, the evidence is overwhelming that the Rhetoric to Alexander is the work not of Anaximenes, but of Aristotle; on the condition that its date is not that of Aristotle's confessedly genuine Rhetoric. There is a second and even stronger evidence that the Rhetoric to Alexander is a genuine work of Aristotle.
The point of Aristotle was to draw a line between rational and other evidences, to insist on the former, and in fact to found a logic of rhetoric. But if in the Rhetoric to Alexander, not he, but Anaximenes, had already performed this great achievement, Aristotle would have been the meanest of mankind; for the logic of rhetoric would have been really the work of Anaximenes the sophist, but falsely claimed by Aristotle the philosopher.
Next, Anaximenes, preferring air, resolved its transformations into processes of thinning and thickening.
Thus Thales recognized change, but was not careful to explain it; Anaximander attributed to change two directions; Anaximenes conceived the two sorts of change as rarefaction and condensation; Heraclitus, perceiving that, if, as his predecessors had tacitly assumed, change was occasional, the interference of a moving cause was necessary, made change perpetual.
According to the account of Ctesias (preserved by Anaximenes of Lampsacus in Steph.
The earlier Ionian physicists, Thales, Anaximander and Anaximenes, in their attempts to trace the Multiplicity of things to a single material element, had been troubled by no misgivings about the possibility of knowledge.
The successors of Thales were Anaximander and Anaximenes, who also sought for a primal substance of things.
Anaximenes, pupil of Anaximander, seems to have rebelled against the extreme materialism of his master.
Further, it is difficult not to accept Cicero's statement that Anaximenes made air a conscious deity; we are, at all events, justified in regarding Anaximenes as a link (perhaps an unconscious link) between crude Hylozoism and definitely metaphysical theories of existence.
We have seen that Thales recognized change, but attempted no explanation; that Anaximander spoke of change in two directions; that Anaximenes called these two directions by specific names.
But Diogenes went much farther than Anaximenes by attributing to air not only infinity and eternity but also intelligence.
Anaximenes of Lampsacus >>
The primitive substance, be it remembered, is not Heraclitus's fire (though Cleanthes also called it flame of fire, 4X6) any more than it is the air or " breath " of Anaximenes or Diogenes of Apollonia.