Comparative anatomists have been learning to refrain from basing the diagnosis of a species, or the description of the condition of an organ, on the evidence of a single specimen.
After the death of the two anatomists just named, another series of similar descriptions of eight other species was found among their papers, and the whole were published in the Memoires of the French Academy of Sciences in 1733 and 1734.
4 The treatises of the two Bartholinis and Borrichius published at Copenhagen deserve mention if only to record the activity of Danish anatomists in those days.
The most novel feature, and one the importance of which most ornithologists of the present day are fully prepared to admit, is the separation of the class A y es into two great divisions, which from one of the most obvious distinctions they present were called by its author Carinatae' and Ratitae, 2 according as the sternum possesses a keel (crista in the phraseology of many anatomists) or not.
In the course of this evolution there were many cases of arrest or degradation, and one of the most novel of the ideas of Fiirbringer, and one now accepted by not a few anatomists, was that the ratites or ostrich-like birds were not a natural group but a set of stages of arrested development or of partial degradation.
Anatomists like F.
The influence of these great academies of the 17th century on the progress of zoology was precisely to effect that bringing together of the museum-men and the physicians or anatomists which was needed for further development.
Teleology in this form of the doctrine of design was never very deeply rooted amongst scientific anatomists and systematists.
The exploration of parts of the New World next brought to hand descriptions and specimens of many novel forms of animal life, and in the latter part of the 16th century and the Medical beginning of the 17th that careful study by " special- anatomists" of the structure a.nd life-history of particular groups of animals was commenced, which, directed micro- at first to common and familiar kinds, was gradually scopists.
This minuter study had two origins, one in the researches of the medical anatomists, such as Fabricius (1537-1619), Severinus (1580-1656), Harvey (1578-1657), and Tyson (1649-1708), the other in the careful work of the entomologists and first microscopists, such as Malpighi (1628-1694), Swammerdam (1637-1680), and Hook (1635-1702).
The greatest of all investigators of animal structure in the 19th century was Johann Miller (1801-1858), the successor in Germany of the anatomists Rathke (1793-1860) and Meckel (1781-1833).
That doctrine took some few years to produce its effect, but it became evident at once to those who accepted Darwinism that the natural classification of animals, after which collectors and anatomists, morphologists, philosophers and embryologists had been so long striving, was nothing more nor less than a genealogical tree, with breaks and gaps of various extent in its record.
There is no doubt that the organs were also examined by opening the bodies of living persons - criminals condemned to death being given over to the anatomists for this purpose.
They produced many eminent anatomists, but in the end seem to have become lost in theoretical subtleties, and to have maintained too high a standard of literary cultivation.
We thus see that, while the great anatomists, physicists and chemists - men of the type of Willis, Borelli and Boyle - were laying foundations which were later on built up into the fabric of scientific medicine, little good was done by the premature application of their half-understood principles to practice.
In Italy the tradition of the great anatomists and physiologists of the 17th century produced a series of accurate observers and practitioners.
Among the pioneers of this period were the vertebrate zoologists and comparative anatomists Peter Simon Pallas, Pieter Camper and Johann Friedrich Blumenbach.
To Kolliker,ll Gegenbaur, 12 and more recently Spenger, l3 amongst German anatomists, we are indebted for epoch-making researches of the same kind.
Classification of races on cranial measurements has long been attempted by eminent anatomists, and in certain cases great reliance may be placed on such measurements.
The anatomists and embryologists of the next quarter of a century confirmed rather than expanded the views of Miller.