Comparative anatomists have been learning to refrain from basing the diagnosis of a species, or the description of the condition of an organ, on the evidence of a single specimen.
After the death of the two anatomists just named, another series of similar descriptions of eight other species was found among their papers, and the whole were published in the Memoires of the French Academy of Sciences in 1733 and 1734.
4 The treatises of the two Bartholinis and Borrichius published at Copenhagen deserve mention if only to record the activity of Danish anatomists in those days.
The most novel feature, and one the importance of which most ornithologists of the present day are fully prepared to admit, is the separation of the class A y es into two great divisions, which from one of the most obvious distinctions they present were called by its author Carinatae' and Ratitae, 2 according as the sternum possesses a keel (crista in the phraseology of many anatomists) or not.
It is sufficient here to remark that the author, even then a man of great erudition, must have been aware of the turn which taxonomy was taking; but, not being able to divest himself of the older notion that external characters were superior to those furnished by the study of internal structure, and that Comparative Anatomy, instead of being a part of zoology, was something distinct from it, he seems to have endeavoured to form a scheme which, while not running wholly counter to the teachings of Comparative Anatomists, should yet rest ostensibly on external characters.
In the course of this evolution there were many cases of arrest or degradation, and one of the most novel of the ideas of Fiirbringer, and one now accepted by not a few anatomists, was that the ratites or ostrich-like birds were not a natural group but a set of stages of arrested development or of partial degradation.
Anatomists like F.
The influence of these great academies of the 17th century on the progress of zoology was precisely to effect that bringing together of the museum-men and the physicians or anatomists which was needed for further development.
Teleology in this form of the doctrine of design was never very deeply rooted amongst scientific anatomists and systematists.
The exploration of parts of the New World next brought to hand descriptions and specimens of many novel forms of animal life, and in the latter part of the 16th century and the Medical beginning of the 17th that careful study by " special- anatomists" of the structure a.nd life-history of particular groups of animals was commenced, which, directed micro- at first to common and familiar kinds, was gradually scopists.
This minuter study had two origins, one in the researches of the medical anatomists, such as Fabricius (1537-1619), Severinus (1580-1656), Harvey (1578-1657), and Tyson (1649-1708), the other in the careful work of the entomologists and first microscopists, such as Malpighi (1628-1694), Swammerdam (1637-1680), and Hook (1635-1702).
The greatest of all investigators of animal structure in the 19th century was Johann Miller (1801-1858), the successor in Germany of the anatomists Rathke (1793-1860) and Meckel (1781-1833).
That doctrine took some few years to produce its effect, but it became evident at once to those who accepted Darwinism that the natural classification of animals, after which collectors and anatomists, morphologists, philosophers and embryologists had been so long striving, was nothing more nor less than a genealogical tree, with breaks and gaps of various extent in its record.
There is no doubt that the organs were also examined by opening the bodies of living persons - criminals condemned to death being given over to the anatomists for this purpose.
They produced many eminent anatomists, but in the end seem to have become lost in theoretical subtleties, and to have maintained too high a standard of literary cultivation.
We thus see that, while the great anatomists, physicists and chemists - men of the type of Willis, Borelli and Boyle - were laying foundations which were later on built up into the fabric of scientific medicine, little good was done by the premature application of their half-understood principles to practice.
In Italy the tradition of the great anatomists and physiologists of the 17th century produced a series of accurate observers and practitioners.
Minuter accuracy of observation was inculcated by the labours and teaching of the great anatomists of the 17th century; and, for modern times, experimental physiology was instituted by Harvey, anatomy having done little to interpret life in its dynamic aspects.
Among the pioneers of this period were the vertebrate zoologists and comparative anatomists Peter Simon Pallas, Pieter Camper and Johann Friedrich Blumenbach.
To Kolliker,ll Gegenbaur, 12 and more recently Spenger, l3 amongst German anatomists, we are indebted for epoch-making researches of the same kind.
Being intermediate between the higher apes and man would seem likely to' be found, Dr Eugene Dubois in 1891-1892 excavated from a bed, considered by him to be of Sivalik formation (Pliocene), a thighbone which competent anatomists decide to be human, and a remarkably depressed calvaria or skull-cap (fig.
Classification of races on cranial measurements has long been attempted by eminent anatomists, and in certain cases great reliance may be placed on such measurements.