With the aid of the marquis de Saluces and the anatomist G.
It has been the habit of biologists to use the terms variation, selection, elimination, correlation and so forth, vaguely; the new school, which has been strongly reinforced from the side of physical science, insists on quantitative measurements of the terms. When the anatomist says that one race is characterized by long heads, another by round heads, the biometricist demands numbers and percentages.
The Russian plant-anatomist, Russow, may be said to have founded the consideration of plant tissues from the point of view of descent (Vergleichende Untersuchungen ber die Leilbundelkryptogamen, St Petersburg, 1872; and Betrachtungen ber Leitbndel und Grundgewebe, Dorpat, 1875).
Tiedemann, 2 the Heidelberg anatomist, who has been generally ignored, although he surpassed many a recent zoogeographer by the wide view he took of the problem; in fact he was the first to connect distribution with environmental or bionomic factors; e.g.
Unfortunately almost every anatomist who has written on the muscles of the Brachiopoda has proposed different names for each muscle, and the confusion thence arising is much to be regretted.
One of the most famous professors was Marcello Malpighi, a great anatomist of the 17th century.
Apart from this, Cuvier was a keen-sighted and enthusiastic anatomist of great skill and industry.
In England they were not generally accepted till adopted with some modifications by Thomas Willis the great anatomist (1621-1675), who is the chief English representative of the chemical school.
Among the first of these were Antonio Maria Valsalva (1666-1723), still better known as an anatomist; Giovanni Maria Lancisi (1654-1720), also an anatomist, the author of a classical work on the diseases of the heart and aneurisms; and Ippolito Francisco Albertini (1662-1738), whose researches on the same class of diseases were no less important.
David Martin (1737-1798), the painter and engraver; 'Thomas Chalmers (1780-1847), the great divine; and John Goodsir (1814-1867), the anatomist, were natives of Anstruther.
To the anatomist the roughnesses of the palm are of considerable interest.
Progress in these two lines is by no means uniform; while, for example, palaeontology enjoyed a sudden advance early in the 19th century through the discoveries and researches of Cuvier, guided by his genius as a comparative anatomist, it was checked by his failure as a natural philosopher.
Successive observers in Italy, notably Fracastoro (1483-1553), Fabio Colonna (1567-1640 or 1650) and Nicolaus Steno (1638 - c. 1687), a Danish anatomist, professor in Padua, advanced the still embryonic science and set forth the principle of comparison of fossil with living forms. Near the end of the 17th century Martin Lister (1638-1712), examining the Mesozoic shell types of England, recognized the great similarity as well as the differences between these and modern species, and insisted on the need of close comparison of fossil and living shells, yet he clung to the old view that fossils were sports of nature.
Early trained as a comparative anatomist, the discovery of Upper Eocene mammals in the gypsum quarries of Montmartre found him fully prepared (1798), and in 1812 appeared his Recherches sur les ossemens fossiles, brilliantly written and constituting the foundation of the modern study of the extinct vertebrates.
The reptiles awaited a great classifier, and such a one appeared in England in the person of Sir Richard Owen (1804-1892), the direct successor of Cuvier and a comparative anatomist of the first rank.
He took up medical studies by the advice of the anatomist Felix Vicq d'Azyr (1748-1794), and after many difficulties caused by lack of means finally in 1780 obtained his doctor's diploma.
Owen, furnished that eminent anatomist, in conjunction with other specimens of the same kind received from Drs Lyon and George Bennett, with the materials of the masterly monograph laid before the society in instalments, and ultimately printed in its Transactions (ii.
JEAN CRUVEILHIER (1791-1874), French anatomist, was born at Limoges in 1791, and was educated at the university of Paris, where in 1825 he became professor of anatomy.
Lanfranc, Pope John XIV., Porta the anatomist and Cremona the mathematician were born in the city.
It is the crowning merit of the author that he never ceases to be an impartial spectator - a cold and curious critic. We might compare him to an anatomist, with knife and scalpel dissecting the dead body of Italy, and pointing out the symptoms of her manifold diseases with the indifferent analysis of one who has no moral sensibility.
RUDOLPH WAGNER (1805-1864), German anatomist and physiologist, was born on the 30th of June 1805 at Bayreuth, where his father was a professor in the gymnasium.
Sommerring, with a biography of that anatomist (1844), which he himself fancied most of all his writings.
In 146 Galen began the study of medicine, and in about his twentieth year he left Pergamus for Smyrna, in order to place himself under the instruction of the anatomist and physician Pelops, and of the peripatetic philosopher Albinus.
It satisfied his mind to consider it as belonging to the system of nature, as indeed remained the case with a greater anatomist of the following century, Richard Owen.
SIR CHARLES BELL (1774-1842), Scottish anatomist, was born at Edinburgh in November 1774, the youngest son of the Rev. William Bell, a clergyman of the Episcopal Church of Scotland; among his brothers were the anatomist, John Bell, and the jurist, G.
The view maintained by a distinguished comparative anatomist, Professor St George Mivart, in his Genesis of Species, ch.
JOHANNES PETER MULLER (1801-1858), German physiologist and comparative anatomist, was born at Coblenz on the 14th of July 1801.