An anathema was accordingly issued from Schmalkald against Schwenkfeld (together with Sebastian Franck); his books were placed on the Protestant "index"; and he himself was made a religious outlaw.
Much as he mingled with society, and with persons of importance in church and state, his single interference in political matters was in 1593, when his persuasions induced the pope, Clement VIII., to withdraw the excommunication and anathema of Henry IV.
He was cited three times, in the canonical manner, and upon not appearing was threatened in the third session with anathema (Hefele, Councils, sect.
The anathema of the Roman Church had fallen upon all the fundamental doctrines for which the Reformers had contended and died; the right of free discussion within the limits of the creeds, which had given room for the speculations of the medieval philosophers, was henceforth curtailed and confined; and the definitions of the schoolmen were for ever exalted by the authority of Rome into dogmas of the Church.
" Twelve priests should stand about the bishop, munica= holding in their hands lighted torches, which at the con- tion s, clusion of the anathema or excommunication they should cast down and trample under foot."
In the hurry of first terror, the church struck Aristotle with the anathema launched against innovations in philosophy.
In 1656 the synod anathematized the adherents of the old forms, and the anathema was confirmed by those of 1666 and 1667.
The threatened anathema was deferred, but a brief uniting St Mark's to a new Tuscan branch of the Dominicans now deprived Savonarola of his independent power.
Almost immediately the entire assembly with one voice cried out anathema on the impious Nestorius and his impious doctrines, and after various extracts from the writings of church fathers had been read the decree of his exclusion from the episcopate and from all priestly communion was solemnly read and signed by all present, whose numbers had by this time swelled to one hundred and ninety-eight.
So far as Nestorius himself is concerned, however, it is certain that he never formulated any such doctrine;2 nor does any recorded utterance of his, however casual, come so near the heresy called by his name as Cyril's deliberately framed third anathema (that regarding the "physical union" of the two hypostases or natures) approaches Eutychianism.
In the form anathema, the word is used in the Septuagint, the New Testament and ecclesiastical writers as the equivalent of the Hebrew herem, which is commonly translated " accursed thing " (A.V.) or " devoted thing " (R.V.; cf.
His doing so, while it brought upon him the anathema of the patriarch of Constantinople, failed to secure the favour of Anastasius, who in 511 found in the riots which were occurring between the rival parties in the streets of Antioch a pretext for deposing Flavian, and banishing him to Petra, where he died in 518.
It is worth noting that even as late as the close of the 16th century the Maronite patriarch found it necessary to protest by anathema against imputations of heresy.
With regard to form, the decisions of councils, even when dogmatic, are called canons; thus the definitions of the council of Trent or of the Vatican, which generally begin with the words " Si quis dixerit," and end with the anathema, are canons; while the long chapters, even when dealing with matters of discipline, retain the name of chapters or decrees.
He was kindly dismissed by the pope not long after, with a letter recommending him to the protection of the bishops of Tours and Angers, and another pronouncing anathema on all who should do him any injury or call him a heretic. He returned home, overwhelmed with shame and bowed down with sorrow for having a second time been guilty of a great impiety.
(I) In the matter of jurisdiction: "If any one say that the Roman Pontiff has an office merely of inspection and direction, and not the full and supreme power of jurisdiction over the whole Church, not only in matters of faith and morals, but also as regards discipline and the government of the Church scattered throughout the whole world; or that he has only the principal portion and not the plenitude of that supreme power; or that his power is not ordinary and immediate, as much over each and every church as over each and every pastor and believer: anathema sit."
In 1546 the council of Trent adopted the canon of Augustine, declaring " He is also to be anathema who does not receive these entire books, with all their parts, as they have been accustomed to be read in the Catholic Church, and are found in the ancient editions of the Latin Vulgate, as sacred and canonical."