Secular state education and the "conscience clause" were anathema to him.
For excommunication differs from anathema: anathema which ought to be very rarely, or never, resorted to, in precluding all pardon, execrates a person, and devotes him to eternal perdition: whereas excommunication rather censures and punishes his conduct.
What he calls heresy, under the sanction of excommunication or that more formal excommunication known as anathema, is heresy.
In the hurry of first terror, the church struck Aristotle with the anathema launched against innovations in philosophy.
Much as he mingled with society, and with persons of importance in church and state, his single interference in political matters was in 1593, when his persuasions induced the pope, Clement VIII., to withdraw the excommunication and anathema of Henry IV.
20, " If any one do not keep the fasts universally commanded and observed by the whole church, let him be anathema."
Neri saw that the pope's attitude was more than likely to drive Henry to a relapse, and probably to rekindle the civil war in France, and directed Baronius, then the pope's confessor, to refuse him absolution, and to resign his office of confessor, unless he would withdraw the anathema.
In 1656 the synod anathematized the adherents of the old forms, and the anathema was confirmed by those of 1666 and 1667.
The threatened anathema was deferred, but a brief uniting St Mark's to a new Tuscan branch of the Dominicans now deprived Savonarola of his independent power.
It is worth noting that even as late as the close of the 16th century the Maronite patriarch found it necessary to protest by anathema against imputations of heresy.