This law has been abundantly verified by experiment; for example, five oxides of nitrogen are known, and independent analyses show that, if we consider the same weight of nitrogen in every case, the weights of oxygen combined with it are to one another as i: 2: 3: 4: 5.
Dalton himself made many analyses with the purpose of establishing his views, but his skill as an analyst was not very great.
But on account of experimental errors in weighing and measuring, and through loss of material in the transfer of substances from one vessel to another, such analyses are rarely trustworthy to more than one part in about Soo; so that small changes in weight consequent on the chemical change could not with certainty be proved or disproved.
His analyses of another compound, silver iodate, confirm the law to one part in 78,000.
Such analyses, which do not always admit of great accuracy, have been confirmed by a few carefully planned experiments in which two components were brought together under very varied conditions, and the resulting compound analysed.
The average of a large number of analyses of Upland cotton seed gives the following figures for its fertilizing constituents: - Nitrogen, 3.07%; phosphoric acid, 1.02%; potash, 1.17%; besides small amounts of lime, magnesia and other valuable but less important ingredients.
From analyses of water, which he regarded as composed of one atom of hydrogen and one of oxygen, he This dictum was questioned by the researches of H.
Included in this group are some rocks which are more properly to be regarded as vitreous forms of trachyte than as glassy rhyolites (Iceland), but except by chemical analyses they cannot be separated.
The chemical composition of typical obsidians is shown by the following analyses Obsidian, when broken, shows a conchoidal fracture, like that of glass, and yields sharp-edged fragments, which have been used in many localities as arrow-points, spear-heads, knives and razors.
(3) Marti (1904) abandons the attempt to explain the prophecy as a unity, and analyses it into three elements, viz.
The effect of the two processes on the purity of the market lead is clearly shown by the two following analyses by Hampe, which represent lead from Lautenthal in the Harz Mountains, where the Parkes process replaced that of Pattinson, the ores and smelting process remaining practically the same: - It is absolutely necessary for the success of the Parkes process that the zinc and lead should contain only a small amount of impurity.
Special glasses have therefore been produced by Tonnelot in France and at the Jena glassworks in Germany expressly for the manufacture of thermometers for accurate physical measurements; the analyses of these are shown in Table III.
The following are typical analyses: The raw materials for the production of plate-glass are chosen.
Most of the material termed " sand " in such analyses consists of particles ranging in diameter from .5 to.
In the ordinary chemical analyses of the soil determinations are made of the nitrogen and various carbonates present as well as of the amount of phosphoric acid, potash, soda, magnesia and other components soluble in strong hydrochloric acid.
Analyses of this character would appear to indicate the permanent productive capacity of the soil rather than its immediate power of growing a crop.
The results of many analyses show that the capacity of soils for moisture increases with the amount of organic substances present; decomposition appears to be most active when the moisture is about 4%, but can continue when it is as low as 2%, while it appears to be retarded by any excess over 4%.
The following analyses of upper leaves made at the Connecticut state station, and recorded in Report No.
While professor of morals at Leipzig, Otto Mencke planned the Acta eruditorum, with a view to make known, by means of analyses, extracts and reviews, the new works produced throughout Europe.
Kriiss worked with the same salt, and obtained the value 195.65; while Mallet, by analyses of gold chloride and bromide, and potassium auribromide, obtained the value 195.77.
The analyses of modern chemists have now revealed the existence of 32 out of the 80 known elements as existing dissolved in sea-water, and it is scarcely too much to say that the remaining elements also exist in minute traces which the available methods of analysis as yet fail to disclose.
The most numerous analyses have been carried out by Forchhammer, who dealt with 150 samples, and Dittmar, who made complete analyses of 77 samples obtained on the" Challenger"expedition.
As Marcet had foreshadowed from the analysis of 14 samples in 1819, the larger series of exact analyses proved that the variations in the proportion of individual salts to the total salts are very small, and all analyses since Dittmar's have confirmed this result.
Examples of analyses treated in this manner are furnished in the last column of Table I., from which it will be seen that the nearest approach to pure carbon is furnished by anthracite, which contains above 90%.
The constancy of composition shown by repeated analyses of atmospheric air led to the view that it was a chemical compound of nitrogen and oxygen; but there was no experimental confirmation of this idea, and all observations tended to the view that it is simply a mechanical mixture.
Regnault, from analyses of the air of Paris, obtained a variation of 20 999 to 20 913; country air varied from 20.903 to 21.000; while air taken from over the sea showed an extreme variation of 20 940 to 20 850.
It is on our familiarity with modes of transmission such as these, and with the exact analyses of them which the science of mathematical physics has been able to make, that our predilection for filling space with an aethereal transmitting medium, constituting a universal connexion between material bodies, largely depends; perhaps ultimately it depends most of all, like all our physical conceptions, on the intimate knowledge that we can ourselves exert mechanical effect on outside bodies only through the agencies of our limbs and sinews.
These consist of galactin and lactochrome, substances peculiar to milk, discovered by Winter Blyth, with certain animal principles such as leucin, pepton, kreatin, tyrosin, &c. The salts in milk consist, according to the average of numerous analyses by Fleischmann, of the following Milk thus is not to be regarded as a definite chemical compound nor even as a mixture of bodies in fixed and invariable proportions.
Stahler, who obtained the value 39.114 from analyses of the chloride, and by Richards and E.
He analyses significant stylistic peculiarities such as occur, e.g., in Isaiah xxiv.-xxvii.
He carefully analyses the principles of sound historical method and the essentials of a trustworthy historical record.
Chemical analyses made by Mr F.
It often happens that analyses of brown iron ores reveal a larger proportion of water than required by the typical formula of limonite, and hence new species have been recognized.
More attention seems to have been given to the matter in the United States of America and in Germany and Russia than in England, but the infinite variety of samples known to the commercial expert, and the impossibility of standardizing those in such a manner as to make readily recognizable what the chemist has treated, renders most of the recorded analyses of uncertain value.
One reason may be that analyses are generally made of tea liquors produced by distilled water, which is the very worst possible from the point of view of the commercial expert or in domestic usage.
P. 721) obtained the values 9.113 from analyses of beryllium acetonyl-acetate and beryllium basic acetate.
There he made analyses of phosphates and phosphites, arsenates and arsenites, confirming the conclusions of J.
The following analyses show their general composition: An artificial product which serves perfectly as a pozzuolana is granulated blast-furnace slag.
The composition of typical samples of chalk and clay is shown in the following analyses: These materials are mixed in the proportion of about 3 :Iby weight so that the dried mixture contains approximately 75% of calcium carbonate, the balance being clay.
Analyses of the two classes of hydraulic lime are as follows: Hydraulic lime contains a good deal of uncombined lime, and has to be slaked before it is used as a cement.
The quantity of these materials is so small that analyses of Keene's cement show it to be almost pure anhydrous calcium sulphate, and make it difficult to explain what, if any, influence these minute amounts of alum and the like can exert on the setting of the cement.
Soc., 1906, 28, p. 1360), by analyses of the chloride and bromide, obtained 54.96 (0 = 16).
The first of these, casting is chiefly adapted for bronze, or ' Analyses of the iron of prehistoric weapons have brought to light the interesting fact that many of these earliest specimens of iron manufacture contain a considerable percentage of nickel.
The Commentaries of Averroes fall under three heads: - the larger commentaries, in which a paragraph is quoted at large, and its clauses expounded one by one; the medium commentaries, which cite only the first words of a section; and the paraphrases or analyses, treatises on the subjects of the Aristotelian books.
His analyses were both chemical and bacteriological, and his dissatisfaction with the processes in vogue for the former at the time of his appointment caused him to spend two years in devising new and more accurate methods.
Berzelius found 235.5; Delafontaine, 229.7; Cleve, 232.6 by analyses of the sulphate, and 232.2 by analyses of the oxalate.
Kriiss and Nilson derived the value 230.7 (H = I) from analyses of the carefully purified sulphate.
But both these unnatural forms, which are certainly not analyses of any conscious process of categorical reasoning, break down at once, because they cannot explain those moods in the third figure, e.g.
With a brilliant subtlety Bradley analyses the various types of judgment in his own way, with results that must be taken into account by all subsequent logicians of this type.
Eldridge in California Genealogical Society (1901); elaborate bibliographies in Bancroft with analyses and appreciations of many works.