The higher alcohols such as propyl, isobutyl, amyl, capryl, oenanthyl and caproyl, have been identified; and the amount of these vary according to the different conditions of the fermentation.
Notwithstanding these errors, the value of the " ethyl theory " was perceived; other radicals - formyl, methyl, amyl, acetyl, &c. - were characterized; Dumas, in 1837, admitted the failure of the etherin theory; and, in company with Liebig, he defined organic chemistry as the " chemistry of compound radicals."
'Cooh Ci, BrC CO CBr3+ H H2 HC ("CH, HC C /CH, H02C C02HCI CI (t) (2) C(3) (4) (5) The reduction of o-oxybenzoic acids by sodium in amyl alcohol solution has been studied by A.
192.9° Amyl butyrate.
Referring to the esters C9H1802 previously mentioned, it is seen that the highest boilingpoints belong to methyl octoate and octyl formate, the least symmetrical, while the minimum belongs to amyl butyrate, the most symmetrical.
This substance easily splits out alcohol, and the ring compound then formed yields pyrrolidine on reduction by sodium in amyl alcohol solution.
Sodium reduces salicylic acid in boiling amyl alcohol solution to n-pimelic acid (A.
Although a nitrate, its pharmacological actions resemble those of nitrites such as amyl nitrite, taken internally.
It was based on an accidental observation of the action of metallic aluminium on amyl chloride, and consists in bringing together a hydrocarbon and an organic chloride in presence of aluminium chloride, when the residues of the two compounds unite to form a more complex body.
Sodium nitrite, ethyl nitrite, amyl nitrite) cause relaxation of involuntary muscular fibre and therefore relieve the asthmatic attacks, which depend upon spasm of the involuntary muscles in the bronchial tubes.
Sodium in boiling amyl alcohol reduces it to aromatic tetrahydro-a-naphthylamine, a substance having the properties of an aromatic amine, for it can be diazotized and does not possess an ammoniacal smell.
When reduced by sodium in boiling amyl alcohol solution it forms alicyclic tetrahydro-0naphthylamine, which has most of the properties of the aliphatic amines; it is strongly alkaline in reaction, has an ammoniacal odour and cannot be diazotized.
Sodium and boiling amyl alcohol reduce it to a tetrahydroretene, - t whilst if it be heated with phosphorus and hydriodic acid to 260° C. a dodecahydride is formed.
Sodium in amyl alcohol solution reduces it to hydroecgonidine C9H15N02, while moderate oxidation by potassium permanganate converts it into norecgonine.
The difference between amyl iodide and amyl bromide is not sufficiently marked to be of any value."
Nitrite of amyl inhalations are useful in the early stages when the respiratory muscles are freely movable.
With nitrous acid (obtained from amyl nitrite and gaseous hydrochloric acid, the ketone being dissolved in acetic acid) they form isonitroso-ketones, R CO CH:NOH (L.
Bamberger, Ber., 1887, 20, p. 1705); and with boiling amyl alcohol the 0-tetrahydride, C10H12 (E.
It is reduced by sodium in boiling amyl alcohol solution to "aromatic" tetrahydro-a-naphthol (reduction occurring in the ring which does not contain the hydroxyl group).
With sodium in boiling amyl alcohol solution it gives a mixture of alicyclic and aromatic tetrahydro-/3-naphthols (E.
In this process the amine salt is dissolved in absolute alcohol and diazotized by the addition of amyl nitrite; a crystalline precipitate of the diazonium salt is formed on standing, or on the addition of a small quantity of ether.
Amyl nitrite, C5H1, ONO, boils at 96° C. and is used in the preparation of the anhydrous diazonium salts (E.
A similar product is obtained by oxidizing fermentation amyl alcohol with chromic acid.
In organic chemistry he published papers on the decomposition of ammonium oxalate, with formation of oxamic acid, on amyl alcohol, on the cyanides, and on the difference in constitution between nitric and sulphuric ether.
Besides ethyl or ordinary alcohol, and amyl alcohol, which are present in them all, there have been found in fusel oil several other bodies of the C i, H 27, + 1.
The chief constituent of the fusel oil procured in the manufacture of alcohol from potatoes and grain, usually known as fusel oil and potato-spirit, is isoprimary amyl alcohol, or isobutylcarbinol.
Ordinary fusel oil yields also an isomeric amyl alcohol (active amyl alcohol) boiling at about 128°.
It is not reduced by hydriodic acid and phosphorus, but sodium in the presence of amyl alcohol reduces it to tetrahydrodiphenyl C12H14.
Thus amyl acetate is used as an imitation of the jargonelle-pear flavour; amyl valerate replaces apple flavour, and a mixture of ethyl and propyl butyrates yields the so-called pine-apple flavour.
The following monatomic alcohols receive special treatment under their own headings: - Alcohol (Ethyl), Allyl Alcohol, Amyl Alcohols, Benzyl Alcohol, Butyl Acohols, Methyl Alcohol, and Propyl Alcohols.
Derivatives of the type R 2 N OH result in the action of the Grignard reagent on amyl nitrite.
As an example may be taken the use of nitrite of amyl in angina pectoris.
Nitrite of amyl has the power of dilating the arteries; it has consequently been employed with much success in lowering the blood pressure and removing the pain in angina pectoris.
For on the one hand knowledge of the fact that nitrite of amyl lessens blood pressure has led to the successful employment of other nitrites and bodies having a similar action, and on the other the knowledge that increased blood pressure tends to cause anginal pain leads to the prohibition of any strain, any food, any exposure to cold, and also of any medicines which would unduly raise the blood pressure.
Fusel oil and its chief constituent, amyl alcohol, are direct nerve poisons.