JAHIZ (ABU ' Uthman ` Amr Ibn Bahr Ul-Jahiz; i.e.
In 640 `Amr-ibn-el-Ass (Amr ibn al-`As) invaded Egypt and the following year took Alexandria and founded Fostat (which later became Cairo).
Muhajir, with the help of Ikrima, succeeded with difficulty, but thoroughly, in defeating Amr ibn Ma'dikarib and Qais ibn `Abd Yaghuth in Yemen and Ashath ibn Qais in Hadramut.
AMIR, or AMEER (an Arabic word meaning "commander," from the root amr, " commanding"), a title common in the Mahommedan East.
After the conquest by Amr ibn el-`Asi, inland Cyrenaica regained some importance, lying as it did on the direct route between Alexandria and Kairawan, and Barca became its chief place.
Farther to the east is the mosque of Amr, a much-altered building dating from A.D.
When a mosque is also the founder's tomb, it has a richly ornamented sepulchral chamber always covered by a dome (see further Mosque, which contains plans of the mosques of Amr and sultan Hasan, and of the tomb mosque of Kait Bey).
Amr, the conqueror of Egypt for the caliph Omar, after taking the town besieged the fortress for the greater part of a year, the garrison surrendering in April A.D.
Amr founded El-Fostat, the oldest of these, close to the fortress which he had besieged.
Fostat signifies " the tent," the town being built where Amr had pitched his tent.
The new city, like that founded by Amr, was originally the camp of the conqueror.
639 sent against Egypt under the command of Amr (see AMR-IBNEL-Ass), by the second caliph, Omar I., who had some doubt as to the expediency of the enterprise.
Amr recrossed the river and joined it, but presently was confronted by a Roman army, which he defeated at the battle of Heliopolis (July 640); this victory was followed by the siege of Babylon, which after some futile attempts at negotiation was taken partly by storm and partly by capitulation.
Amr next proceeded in the direction of Alexandria, which was surrendered to him by a treaty signed on the 8th of November 641, under which it was to be occupied by the Moslems on the 29th of September of the following year.
The former, called by the Arabs Mukaukis (Muqauqis) from his Coptic name Pkauchios, had for ten years before the arrival of Amr maintained a fierce persecution of the Jacobite sect, to which the bulk of the Copts belonged.
An attempt was made in the year 645 with a force under Manuel, commander of the Imperial forces, to regain Alexandria for the Byzantine empire; the city was surprised, and held till the summer of 646, when it was again stormed by Amr. In 654 a fleet was equipped by Constans with a view to an invasion, but it was repulsed, and partly destroyed by storm.
Amr-ibn-el-Ass, 3843 (658663).
Sad, on whom the third caliph conferred the government of Lower Egypt also, Amr being recalled, owing to his unwillingness to extort from his subjects as much money as would satisfy the caliph.
In the troubles which overtook the Islamic empire with the accession of Othman, Egypt was greatly involved, arid it had to be reconquered from the adherents of Au for Moawiya (Moawiyah) by Amr, who in A.H.
Al-Walid, Amr-ibn-el-Ass, `Abdallah b.
It was he who appointed Yazid, the son of Abu Sofian, and after his death, his brother Moawiya as governor of Syria, and assigned the province of Egypt to Amr-ibn-el-Ass (`Amr b.
On each side an umpire was appointed, Abu Musa al-Ash`ari, the candidate of Ash`ath, on that of Ali, Amr-ibn-el-Ass (q.v.) on that of Moawiya.
As soon as Amr returned from Adhroh, Moawiya sent him with an army of four or five thousand men against Egypt.