In the later 4th century the name survives only (a) as a geographical expression for part of the coast of Asia Minor, (b) in European Greece as the name of that section of the Northern Amphictyony in which Athens and its colonies were reckoned.
Under the dominion of the Roman republic its national league was dissolved, but was revived by Augustus, who also restored to Phocis the votes in the Delphic Amphictyony which it had lost in 346 and enrolled it in the new Achaean synod.
For the history of the Delphic Amphictyony see under Amphictyony.
Olympia thus became the centre of an amphictyony, or federal league under religious sanction, for the west coast of the Peloponnesus, as Delphi was for its neighbours in northern Greece.
It suited the interests of Sparta to join this amphictyony; and, before the regular catalogue of Olympic victors begins in 77 6 B.C., Sparta had formed an alliance with Elis.
The victorious Greeks subsequently punished Thebes by depriving it of the presidency of the Boeotian League, and an attempt by the Spartans to expel it from the Delphic amphictyony was only frustrated by the intercession of Athens.
After the Persian wars, the predominance of Athens led to the transformation of the Delian amphictyony into the Athenian empire.
At the close of the Peloponnesian War the Spartans gave to the people of Delos the management of their own affairs; but the Athenian predominance was soon after restored, and survived an appeal to the amphictyony of Delphi in 345 B.C. During Macedonian times, from 322 to 166 B.C., Delos again became independent; during this period the shrine was enriched by offerings from all quarters, and the temple and its possessions were administered by officials called i€poirocol.
(On the Delphian cult of Apollo and its political significance, see Amphictyony, Delphi, Oracle; and Farnell, Cults, iv.
The ancient Calauria, with which Poros is identified, was given, according to the myth, by Apollo to Poseidon in exchange for Delos; and it became in historic times famous for a temple of the sea-god, which formed the centre of an amphictyony of seven maritime states' - Hermione, Epidaurus, Aegina, Athens, Prasiae, Nauplia, and Orchomenus.
The word itself indicates that the association primarily comprised neighbours, though the Delphic amphictyony came in time to include relatively distant communities (Strabo ix.
The Delian amphictyony probably reached the height of its splendour early in the 7th century B.C. The Hymn to the Delian Apollo, composed about that time, celebrates the gathering of the Ionians with their wives and children at the shrine of their god on the island of Delos, to worship him with music, dancing and gymnastic contests (vv.
The removal of the treasury to Athens in 454 B.C. deprived Delos of political importance, though the amphictyony continued.
The dissolution of the amphictyony soon followed.
The name of the council (pylaea) and of one set of deputies (pylagori), together with the important place held in the amphictyony by the temple of Demeter at Anthela, near Thermopylae, suggests that this shrine was the original centre of the association.
In the following century the Aetolians gained such dominance in the amphictyony as to convert the council into an organ of their league.
In addition to the three associations thus far mentioned there was an amphictyony of Onchestus (Strabo ix.
92 that there was an amphictyony of Argos of which Epidaurus and Aegina were members.
An amphictyony of Corinth has, with less justification, been assumed on the strength of a passage in Pindar (Nem.
Ferguson, "Delian Amphictyony," in Classical Review (1901), xv.