The magnet ' is wound to a resistance of amperes with accumulators).
By Ohm'S Law, And By The Definition Of Difference Of Electric Pressure Or Potential, We Obtain The Following Alternative Expressions For The Quantity Of Heat H In Joules Generated In A Time T Seconds By A Current Of C Amperes Flowing In A Wire Of Resistance R Ohms, The Difference Of Potential Between The Ends Of The Wire Being E = Cr Volts: H=Ect=Crt=E Z T/R.
He enclosed various metallic junctions in a Bunsen ice calorimeter, and observed the evolution of heat per hour with a current of about 1.6 amperes in either direction.
Currents from the ten-thousandth of an ampere to ten thousand amperes, electrical pressures from a minute fraction of a volt to 100,000 volts, come within the range of his instruments, while the private consumer of electric energy is provided with a meter recording Board of Trade units.
The instrument therefore does not begin to read from zero current, but from some higher limit which, generally speaking, is about one-tenth of the maximum, so that an ammeter reading up to io amperes will not give much visible indication below i ampere.
Very convenient and accurate instruments based on the above principles have been devised by Lord Kelvin, and a large variety of these ampere balances, as they are called, suitable for measuring currents from a fraction of an ampere up to many thousands of amperes, have been constructed by that illustrious inventor.
The value of the current in amperes is then .?.
Thus the centi-ampere balance ranges from i to ioo centi-amperes, the deci-ampere balance from i to ioo deci-amperes, the ampere balance from i to ioo amperes, the deka-ampere balance from i to ioo amperes, the hecto-ampere balance from 6 to 600 amperes, and the kilo-ampere balance from ioo to 2500 amperes.
In these circumstances the current is known to have a fixed value in amperes determined by the weight attached to the instrument.
The total magnetic induction or flux corresponds to the current of electricity (practically measured in amperes); the induction or flux density B to the density of the current (number of amperes to the square centimetre of section); the magnetic permeability to the specific electric conductivity; and the line integral of the magnetic force, sometimes called the magnetomotive force, to the electro-motive force in the circuit.
The instrument exhibited by Thompson would, without undue heating, take a current of 30 amperes, which was sufficient to produce a magnetizing force of woo units.
For simplicity of calculation, the clear length of each rod between the yokes is made 12.56 (=47r) centimetres, while the coil surrounding the standard bar contains 100 turns; hence the magnetizing force due to a current of n amperes will be ion C.G.S.
In diameter the maximum elongation was nearly doubled when a current of two amperes was passing through the iron, while the " critical value " of the field was increased from 130 to 200.
A third platinum coil, wound non-inductively between the primary and the secondary, served to carry the current by which the ring was heated; a current of 4.6 amperes, with 16 volts across the terminals, was found sufficient to maintain the ring at a temperature of 11 50° C. In the ring itself was embedded a platinum-thermometer wire, from the resistance of which the temperature was determined.
Such a furnace, to take a current of 4 H.P. (say, of 60 amperes and so volts), measured externally about 6 by 6 by 7 in., and the electrodes were about o 4 in.
In diameter, while for a current of 100 H.P. (say, of 746 amperes and Too volts) it measured about 14 by 12 by 14 in., and the electrodes were about 1 .
In such a furnace a continuous current, for example, of 3000 amperes, at 50 to 60 volts, may be used at first, increasing to 5000 amperes in about half an hour.
Hence if the galvanometer is calibrated by a potentiometer we can determine the value of this current in amperes, and knowing the value of n and V thus determine C. Various forms of commutator have been devised for effecting this charge and discharge rapidly by J.
At first the current is 3000 amperes at 220 volts, increasing to 9000 amperes at 20 volts after 20 hours.
If then the amperemeter scale reading was 100 it would show an error of that scale reading of minus 1.9 amperes or nearly 2%.
The principle on which the instrument works is as follows: Suppose any circuit, such as an electric motor, lamp or transformer, is receiving electric current; then the power given to that circuit reckoned in watts is measured by the product of the current flowing through the circuit in amperes and the potential difference of the ends of that circuit in volts, multiplied by a certain factor called the power factor in those cases in which the circuit is inductive and the current alternating.
Of 50 to too amperes are recommended by the former, and of 300 amperes by the latter.