The application of this to telegraphic purposes was suggested by Laplace and taken up by Ampere, and afterwards by Triboaillet and by Schilling, whose work forms the foundation of much of modern telegraphy.
The size of the accumulators employed varies from a cell capable of an output of 8 ampere-hours, to a size giving 750 ampere-hours.
Weber, which was found capable of explaining all the phenomena investigated by Ampere as well as the induction currents of Faraday.
The young Ampere, however, soon resumed his Latin lessons, to enable him to master the works of Euler and Bernouilli.
When Lyons was taken by the army of the Convention in 1793, the father of Ampere, who, holding the office of juge de paix, had stood out resolutely against the previous revolutionary excesses, was at once thrown into prison, and soon after perished on the scaffold.
From about 1796 Ampere gave private lessons at Lyons in mathematics, chemistry and languages; and in 1801 he removed to Bourg, as professor of physics and chemistry, leaving his ailing wife and infant son at Lyons.
A continuous electric current of one ampere is defined to be one which deposits electrolytically 0.001118 of a gramme of silver per second from a neutral solution of silver nitrate.'
An alternating current of one ampere is defined to be one which produces the same heat in a second in a wire as the unit continuous current defined as above to be one ampere.
- Instruments of the third class depend for their action on the fact discovered by Ampere, that mechanical forces exist between conductors carrying electric currents when those conductors occupy certain relative positions.
Very convenient and accurate instruments based on the above principles have been devised by Lord Kelvin, and a large variety of these ampere balances, as they are called, suitable for measuring currents from a fraction of an ampere up to many thousands of amperes, have been constructed by that illustrious inventor.
The great novelty in the ampere balances of Lord Kelvin was a joint or electric coupling, which is at once exceedingly flexible and yet capable of being constructed to carry with safety any desired current.
- Connexions of Kelvin Ampere Balance.
Thus the centi-ampere balance ranges from i to ioo centi-amperes, the deci-ampere balance from i to ioo deci-amperes, the ampere balance from i to ioo amperes, the deka-ampere balance from i to ioo amperes, the hecto-ampere balance from 6 to 600 amperes, and the kilo-ampere balance from ioo to 2500 amperes.
Kelvin ampere balances are made in two types - (i) a variable weight type suitable for obtaining the ampere value of any current within their range; and (2) a fixed weight type intended to indicate when a current which can be varied at pleasure has a certain fixed value.
An instrument of the latter type of considerable accuracy was designed by Lord Kelvin for the British Board of Trade Electrical Laboratory, and it is there used as the principal standard ampere balance.
In the use of ammeters in which the control is the gravity of a weight, such as the Kelvin ampere balances and other instruments, it should be noted that the scale reading or indication of the instrument will vary with the latitude and with the height of the instrument above the mean sea-level.
Additional evidence as to the structure of the molecule was discussed by Avogadro in 1811, and by Ampere in 1814.
The development of the atomic theory and its concomitants - the laws of chemical combination and the notion of atoms and equivalents - at the hands of Dalton and Berzelius, the extension to the modern theory of the atom and molecule, and to atomic and molecular weights by Avogadro, Ampere, Dumas, Laurent, Gerhardt, Cannizzaro and others, have been noted.
The mean result of the best determinations shows that when a current of one ampere is passed for one second, a mass of silver is deposited equal to o ooi i 18 gramme.
So accurate and convenient is this determination that it is now used conversely as a practical definition of the ampere, which (defined theoretically in terms of magnetic force) is defined practically as the current which in one second deposits i '18 milligramme of silver.
In area, with currentdensities of 0.375 to i (ranging in some cases to 7.5) ampere per sq.
- Slider of Kelvin Ampere Balance.
Meters intended to measure electric quantity are called coulomb meters and also ampere-hour meters; they are employed for the measurement of public electric supply on the assumption that the electromotive force or pressure is constant.
Electrolytic Meters are exclusively ampere-hour meters, measuring electric quantity directly and electric energy only indirectly, on the assumption that the pressure of the supply is constant.
The shunted voltameter was then inserted in series with the electric supply mains leading to the house or building taking electric energy, and the current which passed dissolved the zinc from one plate and deposited it upon the other, so that after a certain interval of time had elapsed the altered weight of the plates enabled the quantity of electricity to be determined from the known fact that an electric current of one ampere, flowing for one hour, removes 1.2533 grammes of zinc from a solution of sulphate of zinc. Hence the quantity in amperehours passing through the electrolytic cell being known and the fraction of the whole quantity taken by the cell being known, the quantity supplied to the house was determined.
- Amongst motor meters one well-known type belonging to the ampere-hour species is that of S.
This meter is an ampere-hour meter and applicable only to continuous current circu; ts.
By the use of a permanent magnet instead of a shunt coil as the bob of one pendulum, the meter can be made up as an ampere-hour meter.
In Intermittent Registering Meters some form of ampere-meter or watt-meter registers the current or power passing into the house; and a clock motion electrically driven is made to take readings of the ampere-meter or watt-meter at definite intervals - say, every five minutes - and to add up these readings upon a set of registered dials.
The arrangement therefore integrates the ampere-hours or watthours.
With a supply pressure of 200 volts a 5 c.p. carbon filament lamp takes only 0.1 ampere; hence unless a meter will begin to register with 1 1 - 6 - ampere it will fail to record the current consumed by a single small incandescent lamp. In a large supply system such failure would mean a serious loss of revenue.
The standard ampere, and sub-standards from 1 to 2500 amperes.
If the wire has a resistance of 300 ohms and is connected to two points differing in potential by 100 volts, the instrument passes a current of one-third of an ampere and takes up 33 watts in power.
Ampere, Wollaston and others, the realization of the continuous rotation of the wire and the magnet round each other was a scientific puzzle requiring no mean ingenuity for its original solution.
Ampere presented to the French Academy of Sciences an important memoir,' in which he summed up the results of his own and D.
Ampere in this paper gave an account of his discovery that conductors conveying electric currents exercise a mutual attraction or repulsion on one another, currents flowing in the same direction in parallel conductors attracting, and those in opposite directions repelling.
By a series of well-chosen experiments Ampere established the laws of this mutual action, and not only explained observed facts by a brilliant train of mathematical analysis, but predicted others subsequently experimentally realized.
Nothing is more remarkable in the history of discovery than the manner in which Ampere seized upon the right clue which enabled him to disentangle the complicated phenomena of electrodynamics and to deduce them all as a consequence of one simple fundamental law, which occupies in electrodynamics the position of the Newtonian law of gravitation in physical astronomy.
Ampere had already previously shown that a spiral conductor or solenoid when traversed by an electric current possesses magnetic polarity, and that two such solenoids act upon one another when traversed by electric currents as if they were magnets.
Faraday and others then discovered, as already mentioned, means to make the conductor conveying the current rotate round a magnetic pole, and Ampere showed that a magnet could be made to rotate on its own axis when a current was passed through it.
The French mathematicians, Coulomb, Biot, Poisson and Ampere, had been content to accept the fact that electric charges or currents in conductors could exert forces on other charges or conductors at a distance without inquiring into the means by which this action at a distance was produced.
Ann., 1834, 31; 18 35, 34) among other results led him to the statement of the law by means of which the direction of the induced current can be predicted from the theory of Ampere, the rule being that the direction of the induced current is always such that its electrodynamic action tends to oppose the motion which produces it.
Neumann in 1845 did for electromagnetic induction what Ampere did for electrodynamics, basing his researches upon the experimental laws of Lenz.
Turning to practical applications of electricity, we may note that electric telegraphy took its rise in 1820, beginning with a suggestion of Ampere immediately after Oersted's discovery.
His ampere-balances, voltmeters and electrometers, and double bridge, are elsewhere described in detail (see Amperemeter; Electrometer, and Wheatstone'S Bridge).
See Diderot's Prospectus (Muvres, iii.) and d'Alembert's Discours (Ouvres,i.) The scheme should be compared with later attempts of the same nature by Ampere, Cournot, Comte and Herbert Spencer.
The yield of copper per ampere (in round numbers, t oz.
Of copper per ampere per diem) by Faraday's law is never attained in practice; and although 98% may with care be obtained, from 94 to 96% represents the more usual current-efficiency.
In the following year he was sent to study law at Paris, where he fell in with the Ampere family, and through them with Chateaubriand, Lacordaire, Montalembert, and other leaders of the neo-Catholic movement.
Ampere floated a voltaic battery with a coil of wire in its circuit in order to observe the effects of the earth's magnetism on the electric circuit.