Sanballat of Horon, Tobiah the Ammonite, and Gashmu the Arabian (?
He recognized the fact that the shells of molluscs, which grow by successive additions, preserve unchanged the whole series of stages of their individual development, so that each shell of a Cretaceous ammonite, for example, represents five stages of progressive modification as follows: the first is the periode embryonnaire, during which the shell is smooth; the second and third represent periods of elaboration and ornamentation; the fourth is a period of initial degeneration; the fifth and last a period of degeneration when ornamentation becomes obsolete and the exterior smooth again, as in the young.
Alpheus Hyatt (1838-1902) was the first to discover (1866) that these changes in the form of the ammonite shell agreed closely with those which had been passed through in the ancestral history of the ammonites.
He showed that from each individual shell of an ammonite the entire ancestral series may be reconstructed, and that, while the earlier shell-whorls retain the characters of the adults of preceding members of the series, a shell in its own adult stage adds a new character, which in turn becomes the pre-adult character of the types which will succeed it; finally, that this comparison between the revolutions of the life of an individual and the life of the entire order of ammonites is wonderfully harmonious and precise.
Among the Hebrews, Yahweh, some of whose features associate him with thunder, lightning and storm, and with the gifts of the earth, has now become the national god, like the Moabite Chemosh or the Ammonite Milcolm.
Apart from the Ammonite war, our sources are confined to a mere summary (viii.), which includes even the Amalekites (viii.
14); and when Nehemiah prepared to rebuild the walls of Jerusalem an Ammonite was foremost in opposition (Neh.
The few Ammonite names that have been preserved (Nahash, Hanun, and those mentioned above, Zelek in Sam.
The Ammonite god, 2 Sam.
Of Jerusalem), Tobiah the Ammonite, Geshem (or Gashmu) the Arabian, and the Ashdodites, whose virulence increased as the rebuilding of the walls continued.
If we might accept the various theories mentioned above, Balaam would appear in one source of J as an Edomite, in another as an Ammonite; in E as a native of the south of Judah or' possibly as an Aramaean; in the tradition followed by the Priestly Code probably as a Midianite.
Among the Canaanite branch, the king-god is more prominent, and apart from the Ammonite variant Milcom, numerous names compounded with Milkare found on Phoenician inscriptions and among western Semites mentioned in cuneiform literature (H.
Independent evolution of parts is well shown among invertebrates, where the shell of an ammonite, for example, may change markedly in form without a corresponding change in suture, or vice versa.
The polyphyletic law was early demonstrated among invertebrates by Neumayr (1889) when he showed that the ammonite genus Phylloceras follows not one but five distinct lines of evolution of unequal duration.
Deperet notes that the genus Neumayria, an ammonite of the Kimmeridgian, suddenly branches out into an explosion" of forms. Deperet also observes the contrast between periods of quiescence and limited variability and periods of sudden efflorescence.
If Sanballat the Horonite was really a native of the Moabite Horonaim, he finds an appropriate place by the side of Tobiah the Ammonite and Gashmu the Arabian among the strenuous opponents of Nehemiah.
He was partly of Ammonite origin (1 Kings xiv.
In India the serpent-godlings are very often associated with water, and, even at the digging of a well,worship is paid to the ` ` world serpent," and the Salagrama (spiral ammonite), sacred to Vishnu, is solemnly wedded to the Tulasi or basil plant, representative of the garden which the pool will fertilize.
The ammonite, here an instrument in a nature " marriage," has elsewhere given rise to legends of the destruction of serpents, viz.
12-28, have been taken to refer to an Ammonite occupation of Israelite territory after the deportation of the east Jordanic Israelites in 734, but more probably belong to a later event.
Vii.), and refers to an Ammonite invasion (v.
Xi.) has been treated as the occasion of a general Ammonite oppression, which leads to an Israelite gathering, also at Mizpah (Judg.
The story of David and Bathsheba, an incident placed in the account of the Ammonite campaign, upon which it now depends (x.-xii.; with x.
6, an extremely composite passage), and (b) the Ammonite and Philistine oppression (ib.
15-19) and swear by the Ammonite god Milcom (or perhaps by their Moloch; for the persistence of his grim cult, see Moloch).
Many Graptolite zones, showing a constant uniformity of succession, paralleled in this respect only by the longer known Ammonite zones of the Jurassic, have been distinguished in Britain and northern Europe, each marked by a characteristic species.