Thermal ammeters recommend themselves for the following reasons: (I) the same instrument can be used for continuous currents and for alternating currents of low frequency; (2) there is no temperature correction; (3) if used with alternating currents no correction is necessary for frequency, unless that frequency is very high.
In ammeters for small currents it is customary to pass the whole current through the heating wire.
Hot-wire ammeters are, however, liable to a shift of zero, and means are always provided by some adjusting screw for slightly altering the sag of the wire and so adjusting the index needle to the zero of the scale.
Hot-wire ammeters are open to the following objections: The scale divisions for equal increments of current are not equal in length, being generally much closer together in the lower parts of the scale.
From this it follows that hot-wire ammeters are generally not capable of giving visible indications below a certain minimum current for each instrument.
- Another large class of ammeters depend for their action upon the fact that an electric current create; an electric field round its conductor, which varies in strength from point to point, but is otherwise proportional to the current.
In the case of ammeters intended for very small currents, the whole current can be sent through the coil, but for larger currents it is necessary to provide in the instrument a shunt which carries the main current, the movable coil being connected to the ends of this shunt so that it takes a definite small fraction of the current passed through the instrument.
Direct reading equidivisional movable coil ammeters can be made in various portable forms, and are very much employed as laboratory instruments and also as ammeters for the measurement of large electric currents in electric generating stations.
The calibration of ammeters is best conducted by means of a series of standard low resistances and of a potentio meter.
In the use of ammeters in which the control is the gravity of a weight, such as the Kelvin ampere balances and other instruments, it should be noted that the scale reading or indication of the instrument will vary with the latitude and with the height of the instrument above the mean sea-level.
- For switchboard use i n Ammeter Kelvin & electric supply stations where space is valuable, James White instruments of the type called edgewise ammeters Ltd.
In a small piece of soft iron, as in the case of the corresponding ammeters, and this in turn may be made to displace an indicating needle over a scale so that corresponding to every given potential difference between the terminals of the instrument there is a corresponding fixed position of the needle on the scale.
Like the corresponding ammeters, they have the great advantage that the scales are equidivisional and that there is no dead part in the scale, whereas both the electrostatic and electrothermal voltmeters, above described, labour under the disadvantage that the scale divisions are not equal but increase with rise of voltages, hence there is generally a portion of the scale near the zero point where the divisions are so close as to be useless for reading purposes and are therefore omitted.
Ammeters to measure the volume, and voltmeters to determine the pressure of current supplied to the baths, should also be provided.