When their amirs crossed the Straits it was to lead a jehad against the Christians and to return to their capital, Marrakesh.
The amirs of the Muwahhadi Dynasty were as follows:- `Abd-el-Mumin 0145); Yusef II., "Abu Ya`kub" (1163); Ya`kub I., "Abu Yusef el Mansur" (1184); Mahommed III., "En-Nasir" (1199); Yusef III., "Abu Ya`kub el Mustansir" (1214); `Abd-el-Wahid, "El Makhluwi" (1223); `Abd-Allah II., "Abu Mahommed" (1224); Yahya V., "El Mu ` tasim" (1226); Idris III., "El Mamun" (1229); Rashid I., "`Abd-elWahid II."
In 111 9, after the defeat and death of Roger of Antioch, he defeated the amirs of Mardin and Damascus at Danith; in subsequent years he extended his sway to the very gates of Aleppo.
Nominally part of the sultanate of Tlemcen, Algiers had a large measure of independence under amirs of its own, Oran being the chief seaport of the Abd-elWahid.
It was the disunion of the Syrian amirs, and the division between the Abbasids and the Fatimites, that made possible the conquest of the Holy City and the foundation of the kingdom of Jerusalem.
The Latin power thus established and organized in the East had to face in the north a number of Mahommedan amirs, in the south the caliph of Egypt.
The atabegs formed a number of dynasties, which displaced the descendants of the Seljukian amirs in their various principalities.
These dynasties were founded by emancipated mamelukes, who had held high office at court and in camp under powerful amirs, and who, on their death, first became stadtholders for their descendants, and then usurped the throne of their masters.
The union of Mardin and Aleppo under the sway of these two amirs, connecting as it did Mesopotamia with Syria, marks an important stage in the revival of Mahommedan power (Stevenson, Crusades in the East, p. 109).
The Shiite caliphs of Egypt were by this time the playthings of contending viziers, as the Sunnite caliphs of Bagdad had long been the puppets of Turkish sultans or amirs; and in 1164 Amalric I.
It was taken by the Danishmand Amirs of Sivas early in the 12th century, and passed to the Turks in 1 393.
Soon after 1301 the Seljuk amirs overran the whole of the Hermus and Cayster valleys, and a fort on the citadel of Sardis was handed over to Aragonese period.
The Druses renounced their Shehab amirs when Beshir al-Kassim openly joined the Maronites in 1841, and the Maronites definitely revolted from the Khazin in 1858.
Syria, especially Maudud and Aksunk-ur, amirs of Mosul.
By some rigid Moslems these rulers were regarded as only amirs, not caliphs.
Within the limits of these minor dynasties the same rules were observed, and the same may be said of the hereditary fiefs of Turkish amirs not belonging to the royal family, who bore ordinarily the title of atabeg or atabek (properly "father bey"), e.g.
Acknowledged by the Turkish amirs of Asia Minor, he took up his residence in Nicaea, and defeated the first bands of crusaders under Walter the Penniless and others (1096); but, on the arrival of Godfrey of Bouillon and his companions, he was prudent enough to leave his capital in order to attack them as they were besieging Nicaea.
As the crusaders marched by way of Dorylaeum and Iconium towards Antioch, the Greeks subdued the Turkish amirs residing at Smyrna, Ephesus, Sardis, Philadelphia, Laodicea, Lampes and Polybotus; 1 and Kilij Arslan, with his Turks, retired to the north-eastern parts of Asia Minor, to act with the Turkish amirs of Sivas (Sebaste), known under the name of the Danishmand.
Kilij Arslan took possession of Mosul in 1107, and declared himself independent of the Seljuks of Irak; but in the same year he was drowned in the Khaboras through the treachery of his own amirs, and the dynasty seemed again destined to decay, as his sons were in the power of his enemies.
The minister raised his infant son, Ghiyass ed-din Kaikhosrau III., to the throne, and governed the country for ten years longer, till he was entangled in a conspiracy of several amirs, who proposed to expel the Mongols with the aid of the Mameluke sultan of Egypt, Bibars (Beibars or Beybars).
But his authority was scarcely respected in his own residence, for several Turkish amirs assumed independence and could only be subdued by Mongol aid, when they retired to the mountains, to reappear as soon as the Mongols were gone.
Masud fell, probably about 1295, a victim to the vengeance of one of the amirs, whose father he had ordered to be put to death.
In the general confusion of the caliphate produced by the change of dynasty, Africa had fallen into the hands of local rulers, formerly amirs or lieutenants of the Omayyad caliphs, but now aiming at independence.
In the 8th century Kairawan was the capital of the province of Ifrikia governed by amirs appointed by the caliphs.
The amirs of the Murabti dynasty were as follows: - Yusef I., bin Tashfin (1061); `Ali III.
The 31st of May 1240 the new sultan was arrested at Bilbeis by his own amirs, who sent for Najm al-din to succeed him; and on the Igth of June of the same year Najm al-din.
On the 22nd of November the sultan died of disease at Manpira, but his death was carefully concealed by the amirs Ljin and Aktai, acting in concert with the Queen Shajar al-durr, till the arrival from Syria of the heir to the throne, Transhk, who was proclaimed some four months later.
The sultan, who himself had had no share in the victory, advanced after it from Mansura to FriskUr, where his conduct became menacing to the amirs who had raised him to the throne, and to Shajar al-durr; she in revenge organized an attack upon him which was successful, fire, water, and steel contributing to his end.
His authority was before his death recognized all over Syria (with the exception of the few cities still in the power of the Franks), over Arabia, with the exception of Yemen, on the Euphrates from Birah to Kerkesia (Circesium) on the Chaboras (Khabur), whilst the amirs of north-western Africa were tributary to him.
The usurper was, however, able to maintain himself for two years only, famine and pestilence which prevailed in Egypt and Syria during his reign renderiqg him unpopular, while his arbitrary treatment of the amirs also gave offence.
It had become the practice of the Egyptian sultans to bestow all offices of importance on their own freedmen (Mamelukes) to the exclusion of the older amirs, whom they could not trust so well, but who in turn became still more disaffected.
~Iusm al-din fell a Victim to the jealousy of the older amirs whom he had incensed by bestowing arbitrary power on his own Mameluke Mengutimur, and was murdered on the 16th of January 1299.
The amirs Salr and Bibars having usurped the whole of the sultans authority, he, after some futile attempts to free himself of them, under the pretext of pilgrimage to Mecca, retired in March 1309 to Kerak, whence he sent his abdication to Cairo; in consequence of which, on the 5th of April 1309, Bibars Jashengir was proclaimed sultan, with the title Malik al-Mozajar.
Before the year was out the new sultan had been rendered unpopular by the occurrence of a famine, and Malik al-Na~ir was easily able to induce the Syrian amirs to return to his allegiance, in consequence of which Bibars in his turn abdicated, and Malik al-Ng~ir re-entered Cairo as sovereign on the 5th of March 1310.
He soon found the means to execute both Bibars and Salar, while other amirs ~ho had been eminent under the former rgime fled to the Mongols.
In 1315 he instituted a survey of Egypt, and of the twenty-four parts into which it was divided ten were assigned to the sultan and fourteen to the amirs and the army.
After a brief sojourn in Cairo he speedily returned thither, thereby forfeiting his throne, which was conferred by the amirs on his brother Ismail al-Malik alSalili (June 27th, 1342).
Than his predecessors, being given to open debauchery and profligacy, an example followed by his amirs; and fresh discontent led to his being deposed by the Syrian amirs, when his brother ~?dfji was proclaimed sultan in his place (September 18th, 1346).
I.IajjI was deposed and killed on the 10th of December 1347, and another infant son of Malik al-N~ir, Jlfasan, who took his fathers title, was proclaimed, the real power being shared by three amirs, Sheikhun, Menjek and Yelbogha Arus.
Towards the beginning of 1351 the sultan got rid of his guardians and attempted to rule by himself; but though successful in war, his arbitrary measures led to his being dethroned on the 21st of August 1351 by the amirs, who proclaimed his brother Sglil~ with the title of Malik al-Salih.
The power was contested for by various groups of amirs, whose struggles ended with the deposition of the sultan Salih on the 20th of October 1354, and the reinstatement of his brother 1.-lasan, who was again.
5Tlm,urln defeated the Syrian amirs near Aleppo, and soon got possession of the city and the citadel.
The death of Timur in February 1405 restored Egyptian authority in Syria, which, however, became a rendezvous for all who were discontented with the rule of Faraj and his amirs, and two months after Timurs death was in open rebellion against Faraj.
Most of his reign was, however, occupied with revolts on the part of the Syrian amirs, to quell whom he repeatedly visited Syria; the leaders of the rebels were the ami~s Newruz and Sheik MabniudI, afterwards sultan.
Sheik himself died a few months after the decease of his son (January I3th, 1421), and another infant son, A.!zmad, was proclaimed with the title Mcilik al-Mozaffar, the proclamation being followed by the usual dissensions between the amirs, ending with the assumption of supreme power by the amir Tatar, who, after defeating his rivals, on the 29th of August 1421 had himself proclaimed sultan with the title Malik al-~ahir.
This usurper, however, died on the 30th of November of the same year, leaving the throne to an infant son Mohammed, who was given the title Malik al-.~aliiz; the regular intrigues between the amirs followed, leading to his being dethroned on the following 1st of April 1422, when the amir appointed to be his tutor, Barsbai, was proclaimed sultan with the title Malik al-A shraf.
Two years, filled mainly with struggles between rival amirs, Malik al-N~ir was murdered (October 31st, 1498), and his uncle and vizier Kdnsh proclaimed sultan with the title Malik al-Zahir.
The Mameluke amirs were to be retained in office as heads of twelve sanjaks into, which Egypt was divided; and under the next sultan, Suleiman I., two chambers were created, called respectively the Greater and the Lesser Divan, in which both the army and the ecclesiastical authorities were represented, to aid the pasha by their deliberations.
His schemes were frustrated by two of the amirs whom he had imprisoned and who, escaping from their confinement, attacked him in his bath and killed him.
Wodehouse headed off a part of this force from the river at Argin, and, after a sharp action, completely defeated it, killing 900, among whom were many important amirs, and taking 50o prisoners and 12 banners, with very small loss to his own troops.