Of Gondar, the capital of Amhara, and being on the main route from Sennar to Abyssinia, is a trade centre of some importance.
The fall of many of the monuments, according to Bent, was caused by the washing away of the foundations by the stream called Mai Shum, and indeed the native tradition states that " Gudert, queen of the Amhara," when she visited Axum, destroyed the chief obelisk in this way by digging a trench from the river to its foundation.
Of native churches there are two forms - one square or oblong, found in Tigre; the other circular, found in Amhara and Shoa.
AMHARA, the central province of Abyssinia.
Tigre, Amhara, Gojam, &c.), Shoa, Kaffa and Galla land - all these form a geographical unit - and central Somaliland with Harrar.
Of these the Bashilo rises near Magdala and drains eastern Amhara; the Jamma rises near Ankober and drains northern Shoa; the Muger rises near Adis Ababa and drains south-western Shoa; the Didessa, the largest of the Abai's affluents, rises in the Kaffa hills and has a generally S.
A year in Tigre and Amhara to over 40 in.
Of the country; Amhara or Gondar, in the centre; Gojam, the district enclosed by the great semicircular sweep of the Abai; and Shoa, which lies east of the Abai and south of Amhara.
In the middle ages Gondar in Amhara became the capital of the country and was so regarded up to the middle of the 19th century.
In Amhara there are: Magdala, formerly the residence of King Theodore, and the place of imprisonment of the British captives in 1866.
Sokota, one of the great central markets, and capital of the province of Waag in Amhara, at the converging point of several main trade routes; the market is numerously attended, especially by dealers in the salt blocks which come from Lake Alalbed.
For Tigre and Amhara products Massawa is the best port, for the rest of the empire, Jibuti.
The prevailing colour in the central provinces (Amhara, Gojam) is a deep brown, northwards (Tigre, Lasta) it is a pale olive, and here even fair complexions are seen.
Of these the chief provinces have been Tigre (northern), Amhara (central) and Shoa (southern).
The seat of government, or rather of overlordship, has usually been in Amhara, the ruler of which, calling himself negus negusti (king of kings, or emperor), has exacted tribute, when he could, from the other provinces.
Bearing these matters in mind, we find that during the 18th century the most prominent and beneficent rulers were the emperor Yesu of Gondar, who died about 1720, Sebastie, negus of Shoa (1703-1718), Amada Yesus of Shoa, who extended his kingdom and founded Ankober (1743-1774), Tekla Giorgis of Amhara (1770-1798?) and Asfa Nassen of Shoa (1774-1807), the latter being especially renowned as a wise and benevolent monarch.
He increased the pros- and French perity of his land considerably, but by so doing roused the jealousy of Ras Marie of Amhara - to whom he had refused tribute - and Ubie, son of Hailo Mariam, a governor of Simen.
Marie was shortly succeeded in the ras-ship of Amhara by Ali, a nephew of Guxa and a Mahommedan.
Northern Abyssinia was now divided into two camps, the one, Amhara and Ras Ali, under Protestant British, and the other, Tigre and Ubie, under Roman Catholic French, influence.
(18) Lij (= Mr) Kassa was born in Kwara, a small district of Western Amhara, in 1818.
Kassa now ruled in Amhara, but his ambition was to attain to supreme power, and he turned his attention to conquering the remaining chief divisions of the country, Gojam, Tigre and Shoa, Growing which still remained unsubdued.
Had he contented himself with the sovereignty of Amhara and Tigre, he might have maintained his position; but he was led to exhaust his strength against the Wollo Gallas, which was probably one of the chief causes of his ruin.
With the help of the rifles and guns presented to him by the British, he had beaten Ras Bareya of Tigre, Wagshum Gobassie of Amhara and Tekla Giorgis of Condar, and after proclaiming himself negus negusti under the name of Johannes or John, was now preparing to march on Shoa.
This contains a large variety of hard-wooded and valuable timber trees, including species of Weinmannia (Lalona 1), Elaeocarpus (Voanana), Dalbergia (Vbambbana), Nuxia (Valanirana), Podocarpus, a pine, the sole species in the island (Hetatra),Tambourissa (Amhara), Neobaronia (Harah¢ra), Ocotea (Varongy) and probably ebony, Diospyros sp., &c. The following trees are characteristic of Madagascar vegetation, some of them being endemic, and others very prominent features in the landscape: the traveller's-tree (Urania speciosa), with its graceful crown of plantain-like leaves growing like an enormous fan at the top of a tall trunk, and affording a supply of pure cool water, every part of the tree being of some service in building; the Raphia (rofia) palm (Sagus ruffia); the tall fir-like Casuarina equisetifolia or beef wood tree, very prominent on the eastern coast, as well as several species of screw-pine (Pandanus); the Madagascar spice (Ravintsara madagascariensis), a large forest tree, with fragrant fruit, leaves and bark; a beautiful-leaved species of Calophyllum; and the Tangena (Tanghinia veneniflua), formerly employed as a poison ordeal.