AMALRIC II., king from 1197 to 1205, was the brother of Guy of Lusignan.
He had been constable of Jerusalem, but in 1194, on the death of his brother, he became king of Cyprus, as Amalric I.
He married Isabella, the daughter of Amalric I.
Amalric died in 1205, just after his son and just before his wife.
Amalric of Bena >>
In the last quarter of the 12th century the two brothers Amalric and Guy, sons of Hugh the Brown, played a considerable part in the history of the Latin East.
About 1180 Amalric was constable of the kingdom of Jerusalem; and he is said to have brought his handsome brother Guy to the notice of Sibylla, the widowed heiress of the kingdom.
He was succeeded in Cyprus by his brother Amalric, who acquired the title of king of Cyprus from the emperor Henry VI., and became king of Jerusalem in 1197 by his marriage to Isabella, after the death of Henry of Champagne (see Amalric Ii.).
Amalric was the founder of a dynasty of kings of Cyprus, which lasted till 1475, while after 1269 his descendants regularly enjoyed the title of kings of Jerusalem.
Very similar to this in appearance is the teaching of Amalric of Bena (d.
1207); but, while the movements just mentioned were reformatory without being heretical, this is very far from being the case with the mystical pantheism derived by Amalric from the writings of Erigena.
And Amalric I.
On the other hand, the revolution wrought by Amalric I.
The cours de la chaine, whose institution is assigned to Amalric I.
For the next twenty years, during the reigns of Baldwin and his brother Amalric I., there is indeed a close connexion between the kingdom of Jerusalem and the East Roman empire.
Baldwin and Amalric both married into the Comnenian house, while Manuel married Mary of Antioch, the daughter of Raymund.
In the north Manuel enjoyed the homage of Antioch, which his father had gained in 1137, and the nominal possession of Tell-bashir, which had been ceded to him by Baldwin III.: in the south he joined with Amalric I.
Rode behind him at Antioch in 1159 without any of the insignia of royalty, and in an inscription at Bethlehem of 1172 Amalric I.
There was a race for the possession of the country between Nureddin's lieutenant Shirguh or Shirkuh and Amalric I., the brother and successor of Baldwin III.; and in the race Shirkuh proved the winner.
The Shiite caliphs of Egypt were by this time the playthings of contending viziers, as the Sunnite caliphs of Bagdad had long been the puppets of Turkish sultans or amirs; and in 1164 Amalric I.
For Nureddin the fight meant the acquisition of an heretical country for the true faith of the Sunnite, and the final enveloping of the Latin kingdom:' for Amalric it meant the escape from Nureddin's net, and a more direct and lucrative contact with Eastern trade.
Into the vicissitudes of the fight it is not necessary here to enter; but in the issue Nureddin won, in spite of the support which Manuel gave to Amalric. Nureddin's Kurdish lieutenant, Shirguh, succeeded in establishing in power the vizier whom he favoured, and finally in becoming vizier himself (January 1169); and when he died, his nephew Saladin (Sala-ed-din) succeeded to his position (March 1169), and made himself, on the death of the caliph in 1171, sole ruler in Egypt.
Nureddin only left a minor in his place: Amalric, who died in the same year, left a son (Baldwin IV.) who was not only a minor but also a leper; and thus the stage seemed cleared for Saladin.
Of Amalric I., carried to her husband - a French adventurer - a presumptive title to the crown, which would never be admitted without dispute.
In 1195 Amalric, the brother of Guy de Lusignan, and his successor in Cyprus, sought the title of king from Henry and did homage; and at the same time Leo of Lesser Armenia, in order to escape from dependence on the Eastern empire, took the same course.
Some results were, however, achieved by a body of German crusaders which had sailed in advance of Henry; by its influence Amalric of Cyprus succeeded Henry of Champagne, who died in 1197, as king of Jerusalem, and a vassal of the emperor thus became ruler in the Holy Land; while the Teutonic order, which had begun as a hospital during the siege of Acre (1190-1191), now received its organization.
Some of the coast towns, too, were recovered by the German crusaders, especially Beirut; and in 1198 the new king Amalric II.
Had been advised by his counsellors that Cairo and not Jerusalem was the true point of attack; while in 1200 there was the additional reason for preferring an attack on Egypt, that the truce in the Holy Land between Amalric II.
The original leader of the Crusade was John of Brienne, king of Jerusalem (who had succeeded Amalric II., marrying Maria, the daughter of Amalric's wife Isabella by her former husband, Conrad of Montferrat); but after the end of 1218 the cardinal legate Pelagius, fortified by papal letters, claimed the command.
The 3 Amalric I.
On the death of Conradin, Hugh of Cyprus had been recognized in the East as king of Jerusalem (1269); but his pretensions were opposed by Mary of Antioch, a granddaughter of Amalric II., who was prepared to bequeath her claims to Charles of Anjou, and was therefore naturally supported by him.
I Baldwin III., Amalric I., king 1143-1162.
Of Amalric II.
On his return he was happy in winning the good opinion of Amalric I.; he was made first canon and then archdeacon of Tyre, and tutor of the future Baldwin IV.
He knew Greek and Arabic; and he was well acquainted with the affairs of Constantinople, to which he went at least twice on political business, and with the history of the Mahommedan powers, on which he had written a work (now lost) at the command of Amalric. It was Amalric also who set him to write the history of the Crusades which we still possess (in twenty-two books, with a fragment of a twentythird) - the Historia rerum in partibus transmarinis gestarum.
He took refuge with Amalric, king of Jerusalem, whose favour he gained, and who invested him with the town of Berytus, now Beirut.
1207; see Amalric and MYsTicism), though based by him upon a revival of Scotus Erigena, was doubtless connected in its origin with the Neoplatonic treatises which now become current.
In 1163-1164 it was besieged for three months by the crusaders under Amalric, and in 1168 was captured and pillaged by another army of crusaders.
BALDWIN V., the son of Sibylla (daughter of Amalric I.) by her first husband, William of Montferrat, was the nominal king of Jerusalem from 1183 to 1186, under the regency of Raymund of Tripoli.
I (2)Melisinda, daughter of Amalric II.
The Christians under Count Amalric immediately intervened and the four expeditions which ensued in 1164, 1167, 1168 and 1169 were duels between Christians and Saracens.
AMALRIC I., king from 1162 to 1174, was the son of Fulk of Jerusalem, and the brother of Baldwin III.
And Sibylla, while his second wife, Maria Comnena, bore him a daughter Isabella, who ultimately carried the crown of Jerusalem to her fourth husband, Amalric of Lusignan (Amalric II.).
The reign of Amalric I.
It became a question between Amalric and Nureddin, which of the two should control the discordant viziers, who vied with one another for the control of the decadent caliphs of Egypt.
For some five years a contest was waged between Amalric and Shirguh (Shirkuh), the lieutenant of Nureddin, for the possession of Egypt.
Thrice (1164,1167,1168) Amalric penetrated into Egypt: but the contest ended in the establishment of Saladin, the nephew of Shirguh, as vizier - a position which, on the death of the puppet caliph in 1171, was turned into that of sovereign.
This was the position of affairs when Amalric died, in 1174; but, as Nureddin died in the same year, the position was soon altered and Saladin began the final attack on the kingdom.
Amalric I., the second of the native kings of Jerusalem, had the qualities of his brother Baldwin III..