It has also been shown that gold volatilizes when a gold-amalgam is distilled.
Lumps of the solid amalgam, about 2 in.
Von Kienmayer's amalgam, consisting of one part of zinc, one of tin and two of mercury.
A purer metal is obtained by reducing manganese amalgam by hydrogen (0.
News, 23, p. 206) by reducing a solution of potassium nitrite with sodium amalgam, and subsequent precipitation as silver salt.
The cyanhydrin is hydrolysable to an acid, the lactone of which may be reduced by sodium amalgam to a glucoheptose, a non-fermentable sugar containing seven carbon atoms. By repeating the process a non-fermentable gluco-octose and a fermentable glucononose may be prepared.
Stannic sulphide, SnS 2, is obtained by heating a mixture of tin (or, better, tin amalgam), sulphur and sal-ammoniac in proper proportions in the beautiful form of aurum musivum (mosaic gold) - a solid consisting of golden yellow, metallic lustrous scales, and used chiefly as a yellow "bronze" for plaster-of-Paris statuettes, &c. The yellow precipitate of stannic sulphide obtained by adding sulphuretted hydrogen to a stannic solution readily dissolves in solutions of the alkaline sulphides to form thiostannates of the formula M 2 SnS 31 the free acid, H2SnS3, may be obtained as an almost black powder by drying the yellow precipitate formed when hydrochloric acid is added to a solution of a thiostannate.
The principle of applying metallic films to glass seems to have been known to the Romans and even to the Egyptians, and is mentioned by Alexander Neckam in the 12th century, but it would appear that it was not until the 16th century that the process of " silvering " mirrors by the use of an amalgam of tin and mercury had been perfected.
Sodium amalgam converts it into formic acid; whilst with alcohol it yields the normal carbonic ester.
- The cyanhydrins on hydrolysis give monocarboxylic acids, which yield lactones; these compounds when reduced by sodium amalgam in sulphuric acid solution yield a sugar containing one more carbon atom.
By the action of sodium amalgam on an alcoholic solution of anthracene, an anthracene dihydride, C14H12, is obtained, whilst by the use of stronger reducing agents, such as hydriodic acid and amorphous phosphorus, hydrides of composition C14H16 and C14H24 are produced.
By electrolysing an aqueous solution of the chloride with a mercury cathode, a liquid and a solid amalgam, SrHgn, are obtained; the latter on heating gives a mixture of Sr 2 Hg 5 and SrHg 5, and on distillation an amalgam passes over, and not the metal.
A more delicate method consists in adding a very little anthraquinone and sodium amalgam; absolute alcohol gives a green coloration, but in the presence of minute traces of water a red coloration appears.
A native gold amalgam is found as a rarity in California, and bismuth from South America is sometimes rich in gold.
With 10% of gold present the amalgam is fluid, and with 12.5% pasty, while with 13% it consists of yellowish-white crystals.
Forming a gold amalgam, afterwards removing the mercury by distillation; 3.
Similar plates are often used to catch any particles of gold that may be thrown back, while the main operation is so conducted that the bulk of the gold may be reduced to the state of amalgam by bringing the two metals into intimate contact under the stamp head, and remain in the battery.
The amalgam is first pressed in wetted canvas or buckskin in order to remove excess of mercury.
The amalgam yields about 30 to 40% of gold.
Horizontal cylindrical retorts, holding from 200 to 1200 tb of amalgam, are used in the larger Californian mills, pot retorts being used in the smaller mills.
AMALGAM, the name applied to alloys which contain mercury.
Tin amalgam is used for "silvering" mirrors, gold and silver amalgam in gilding and silvering, cadmium and copper amalgam in dentistry, and an amalgam of zinc and tin for the rubbers of electrical machines; the zinc plates of electric batteries are amalgamated in order to reduce polarization.
By heating with sodium amalgam and separating with hydrochloric acid, the dichloride, TaC1 2.2H 2 O, is obtained as emerald green hexagonal crystals.
Davy, inspired by his successful isolation of the metals sodium and potassium by the electrolysis of their hydrates, attempted to decompose a mixture of lime and mercuric oxide by the electric current; an amalgam of calcium was obtained, but the separation of the mercury was so difficult that even Davy himself was not sure as to whether he had obtained pure metallic calcium.
Henri Moissan obtained the metal of 99% purity by electrolysing calcium iodide at a low red heat, using a nickel cathode and a graphite anode; he also showed that a more convenient process consisted in heating the iodide with an excess of sodium, forming an amalgam of the product, and removing the sodium by means of absolute alcohol (which has but little action on calcium), and the mercury by distillation.
By the addition of sodium amalgam to a concentrated solution of ammonium chloride, the so-called ammonium amalgam is obtained as a spongy mass which floats on the surface of the liquid; it decomposes readily at ordinary temperatures into ammonia and hydrogen; it does not reduce silver and gold salts, a behaviour which distinguishes it from the amalgams of the alkali metals, and for this reason it is regarded by some chemists as being merely mercury inflated by gaseous ammonia and hydrogen.
Le Blanc has shown, however, that the effect of ammonium amalgam on the magnitude of polarization of a battery is comparable with that of the amalgams of the alkali metals.
To prepare the cadmium amalgam, one part of pure cadmium is dissolved in six parts of pure mercury, and the product while warm and fluid is placed in one limb of the cell and warmed, to ensure perfect contact with the platinum wire.
The cell has the electromotive force above stated if the amalgam of cadmium has from 6 to 13 parts of mercury to I of cadmium.
The Brahmanic and Buddhistic literature supplied the society with its terminology, and its doctrines were a curious amalgam of Egyptian, kabbalistic, occultist, Indian and modern spiritualistic ideas and formulas.
Sodium amalgam reduces it to isobutyric acid.
C. Oersted heated its chloride with potassium amalgam, and failed in his object simply by reason of the mercury, so that when F.
The metal in mass is not affected by hot or cold water, the foil is very slowly oxidized, while the amalgam decomposes rapidly.
The cushions were greased and the amalgam in a state of powder spread over them.
Sodium amalgam reduces them to secondary alcohols; phosphorus pentachloride replaces the carbonyl oxygen by chlorine, forming the ketone chlorides.
The unification of the peoples of antiquity in the Roman Empire, and the resultant amalgam of religions, gave a powerful impetus to the custom.
By the action of sodium amalgam on an aqueous solution of the acid, benzyl alcohol, tetrahydrobenzoic acid and hexahydrobenzoic acid are formed.
When this percentage has been reached, the cell is rocked to the other side, so that the amalgam flows into one of the outer compartments where the sodium is converted by water into sodium hydrate.
Cautiously she moved forward, allowing herself a peek at this amalgam of evil, this seducer of virgins, who had so ravaged her body.
Sodium amalgam or zinc and hydrochloric acid reduce it to lactic acid, whilst hydriodic acid gives propionic acid.
It is formed by reducing diortho-dinitrodiphenyl with sodium amalgam and methyl alcohol, or by heating diphenylene-ortho-dihydrazine with hydrochloric acid to 150° C. It crystallizes in needles which melt at 156° C. Potassium permanganate oxidizes it to pyridazine tetracarboxylic acid.
The measure was an amalgam of Cavours scheme for a free church in a free state, of Ricasolis Free Church Bill, rejected by parliament four years previously, and of the proposals presented to Pius IX.
By reducing terephthalic acid with sodium amalgam, care being taken to neutralize the caustic soda simultaneously formed by passing in carbon dioxide, A" dihydroterephthalic acid is obtained; this results from the splitting of a Para-linkage.
On reduction by sodium amalgam in glacial acetic acid solution they yield primary amines.
Ruff (Ber., 18 9 8, 3 1, p. 457) from nitro-di-isobutyl by reducing it to the corresponding hydroxylamino compound with aluminium amalgam and oxidizing this with chromic acid mixture.
Stannic Chloride, SnC1 4, named by Andreas Libavius in 1605 Spiritus argenti vivi sublimate from its preparation by distilling tin or its amalgam with corrosive sublimate, and afterwards termed Spiritus fumans Libavii, is obtained by passing dry chlorine over granulated tin contained in a retort; the tetrachloride distils over as a heavy liquid, from which the excess of chlorine is easily removed by shaking with a small quantity of tin filings and re-distilling.
Wallach, Ber., 1881, 14, P. 421); by the action of reducing agents on nitroparaffins; by the action of zinc and hydrochloric acid on aldehyde ammonias (German Patent 73,812); by the reduction of the phenylhydrazones and oximes of aldehydes and ketones with sodium amalgam in the presence of alcohol and sodium acetate (J.
The hydride, SrH 2, was obtained by Guntz on heating strontium amalgam in a current of hydrogen.
The alloy with mercury-gold amalgam-is so readily formed that mercury is one of the most powerful agents for extracting the precious metal.
Phenyl nitramine, C 6 H S NH N02, is a colourless crystalline solid, which melts at 46° C. Sodium amalgam in alkaline solution reduces it to phenylhydrazine.
It is reduced by sodium amalgam (in alcoholic solution) to methylhydrazine, CH 3 NH NH 2.
Dixon); by passing air through solutions of strong bases in the presence of such metals as do not react with the bases to liberate hydrogen; by shaking zinc amalgam with alcoholic sulphuric acid and air (M.
Et de phys., 18 73,  28, p. 366), or by the action of sodium amalgam on methacrylic acid, CH 2: C(CH 3) 000H.
It crystallizes in deliquescent prisms and melts with partial decomposition at 119-120° C. It behaves as a ketonic acid, being reduced in aqueous solution by sodium amalgam to tartronic acid, and also combining with phenylhydrazine and hydroxylamine.
To connect instrumental music with conceptions not in themselves musical, for the order of the ideas that serve as a programme is apt to interfere with the order which the musical exposition naturally assumes - and the result in most cases is but an amalgam of irreconcilable materials.
Dessaignes, ibid., 1860, 115, p. 120; by reducing fumaric and maleic acids with sodium amalgam; by heating bromacetic acid with silver to 130° C.; in small quantity by the oxidation of acetic acid with potassium persulphate (C. Moritz and R.