By strongly heating a mixture of boron trioxide and aluminium, protected from the air by a layer of charcoal, F.
Sainte-Claire Deville obtained a grey product, from which, on dissolving out the aluminium with sodium hydroxide, they obtained a crystalline product, which they thought to be a modification of boron, but which was shown later to be a mixture of aluminium borides with more or less carbon.
Boron dissolves in molten aluminium, and on cooling, transparent, almost colourless crystals are obtained, possessing a lustre, hardness and refractivity near that of the diamond.
Kiihne (D.R.P. 147,871) described a process in which external heating is not necessary, a mixture of aluminium turnings, sulphur and boric acid being ignited by a hot iron rod, the resulting aluminium sulphide, formed as a by-product, being decomposed by water.
Before reaching the paper the light passes through perforations in two iron plates which are, in fact, the pole pieces of a strong electromagnet; between these is an aluminium shutter which is attached to two parallel wires or thin strips.
Wurtz); by the action of nitrous acid on aniline; by passing oxygen into boiling benzene containing aluminium chloride (C. Friedel and J.
Sulphur chloride, S2C12, is obtained as a by-product in the manufacture of carbon tetrachloride from carbon bisulphide and chlorine, and may also be prepared on the small scale by distilling sulphur in a chlorine gas, or by the action of sulphur on sulphuryl chloride in the presence of aluminium chloride (0.
Xanthene, C13H100, may be synthesized by condensing phenol with ortho-cresol in the presence of aluminium chloride.
It consisted in heating metallic chlorides with potassium, and was first applied to aluminium, which was isolated in 1827; in the following year, beryllium chloride was analysed by the same method, beryllium oxide (berylla or glucina) having been known since 1798, when it was detected by L.
This substance, first obtained from the mineral honeystone, aluminium mellitate, by M.
(() An infusible white residue may be obtained,which may denote barium, strontium, calcium, magnesium, aluminium or zinc. The first three give characteristic flame colorations (see below); the last three, when moistened with cobalt nitrate and re-ignited, give coloured masses; aluminium (or silica) gives a brilliant blue; zinc gives a green; whilst magnesium phosphates or arsenate (and to a less degree the phosphates of the alkaline earths) give a violet mass.
If the hot bead is colourless and remains clear on cooling, we may suspect the presence of antimony, aluminium, zinc, cadmium, lead, calcium and magnesium.
If phosphoric acid is absent, aluminium, chromium and ferric hydrates are precipitated.
ULTRAMARINE, a blue pigment, consisting essentially of a double silicate of aluminium and sodium with some sulphides or sulphates, and occurring in nature as a proximate component of lapis lazuli.
It has been suggested that ultramarine is a compound of a sodium aluminium silicate and sodium sulphide.
The objection that a copper plate shows signs of wear after a thousand impressions have been taken has been removed, since duplicate plates are readily produced by electrotyping, while transfers of copper engravings, on stone, zinc or aluminium, make it possible to turn out large editions in a printing-machine, which thus supersedes the slow-working hand-press.
Owing to the great weight of stones, their cost and their liability of being fractured in the press, zinc plates, and more recently aluminium plates, have largely taken the place of stone.
It can be prepared by distilling a mixture of dry calcium benzoate and acetate, Ca(O2CC6H5)2 + (CH3CO2)2Ca = 2CaCO3 + 2 C6H5CO.CH3, or by condensing benzene with acetyl chloride in the presence of anhydrous aluminium chloride (C. Friedel and J.
They are silicates, usually orthosilicates, of aluminium together with alkalis (potassium, sodium, lithium, rarely rubidium and caesium), basic hydrogen, and, in some species magnesium, ferrous and ferric iron, rarely chromium, manganese and barium.
Roscoelite is a mica in which the aluminium is largely replaced by vanadium (V203, 30%); it occurs as brownish-green scaly aggregates, intimately associated with gold in California, Colorado and Western Australia.
Clarke (1889-1893) supposes them to be substitution derivatives of normal aluminium orthosilicate A14(S104)3, in which part of the aluminium is replaced by alkalis, magnesium, iron and the univalent groups (MgF), (A1F2),(AlO), (MgOH); an excess of silica is explained by the isomorphous replacement of H 4 SiO 4 by the acid H4S130s.
Klaproth in the mineral honeystone, which is the aluminium salt of the acid, The acid may be prepared by warming honeystone with ammonium carbonate, boiling off the excess of the ammonium salt and adding ammonia to the solution.
In making up a charge, the ores and fluxes, whose chemical compositions have been determined, are mixed so as to form out of the components, not to be reduced to the metallic or sulphide state, typical slags (silicates of ferrous and calcium oxides, incidentally of aluminium oxide, which have been found to do successful work).
Heusler that an alloy consisting of copper, aluminium and manganese (Heusler's alloy), possesses magnetic qualities comparable with those of iron.
To take a reading the torsion-head is turned until an aluminium pointer attached to the coil is brought to the zero position on a small scale; the strength of the field is then proportional to the angular torsion.
5 More than fifty different specimens were tested, most of which contained a known proportion of manganese, nickel, tungsten, aluminium, chromium, copper or silicon; in some samples two of the substances named were present.
6 A small percentage of aluminium produced still higher permeability (µ=6000 for H=2), the induction in fields up to 60 being greater than in any other known substance, and the hysteresis-loss for moderate limits of B far less than in the purest commercial iron.
The aluminium-iron attained its greatest permeability in a field of o 5, about that of the earth's force, when its value was 9000, this being more than twice the maximum permeability of the Swedish iron.
The metals used in different combinations included tin, aluminium, arsenic, antimony, bismuth and boron; each of these, when united in certain proportions with manganese, together with a larger quantity of copper (which appears to serve merely as a menstruum), constituted a magnetizable alloy.
Thus in an alloy containing 26.5% of manganese and 14.6% of aluminium, the rest being copper, the induction for H= 20 was 4500, and for H=150, 5550.
Next to aluminium, tin was found to be the most effective of the metals enumerated above.
Guillaume 6 explains the ferromagnetism of Heusler's alloy by supposing that the naturally low critical temperature of the manganese contained in it is greatly raised by the admixture of another appropriate metal, such as aluminium or tin; thus the alloy as a whole becomes magnetizable at the ordinary temperature.
Aluminium and 60 49% of copper.
In 1855, ignorant of what Wailer had done ten years previously, he succeeded in obtaining metallic aluminium, and ultimately he devised a method by which the metal could be prepared on a large scale by the aid of sodium, the manufacture of which he also developed.
Is the sign of an alkali metal (potassium, sodium, rubidium, caesium), silver or ammonium, and M 111 denotes one of the trivalent metals, aluminium, chromium or ferric iron.
It was most commonly an iron sulphate, sometimes probably an aluminium sulphate, and usually a mixture of the two.
The alum schists employed in the manufacture of alum are mixtures of iron pyrites, aluminium silicate and various bituminous substances, and are found in upper Bavaria, Bohemia, Belgium and Scotland.
In the roasting process, sulphuric acid is formed and acts on the clay to form aluminium sulphate, a similar condition of affairs being produced during weathering.
The mass is now systematically extracted with water, and a solution of aluminium sulphate of specific gravity 1.16 is prepared.
Industry, 1898, 1 9, p. 543) by reducing the oxide with aluminium powder.
Ruff (Ber., 18 9 8, 3 1, p. 457) from nitro-di-isobutyl by reducing it to the corresponding hydroxylamino compound with aluminium amalgam and oxidizing this with chromic acid mixture.
Pinner, Ber., 1892, 25, p. 1624): / NH N C?CsH 5 2C61 - 15 C +(CH 3 C0) 2 0 -> C6H5 C N; NH 2 N :C?CH3 or by the condensation of aromatic nitriles with acid chlorides in the presence of aluminium chloride (Eitner and Krafft, Ber., 1892, 25, p. 2263).
It was based on an accidental observation of the action of metallic aluminium on amyl chloride, and consists in bringing together a hydrocarbon and an organic chloride in presence of aluminium chloride, when the residues of the two compounds unite to form a more complex body.
The newer glasses, on the other hand, contain a much wider variety of chemical constituents, the most important being the oxides of barium, magnesium, aluminium and zinc, used either with or without the addition of the bases already named in reference to the older glasses, and - among acid bodies - boric anhydride (B20 3) which replaces the silica of the older glasses to a varying extent.
It is easily broken down by many substances (aluminium chloride, zinc chloride, &c.) into ethyl chloride and carbon dioxide.
Gold, silver, copper, lead, aluminium, cadmium, iron (pure), nickel and cobalt are practically amorphous, the crystals (where they exist) being so closely packed as to produce a virtually homogeneous mass.
Among these the softness decreases in about the following order: lead, pure silver, pure gold, tin, copper, aluminium, platinum, pure iron.
Thus, for instance, to% aluminium bronze is scratched by an ordinary steel knife-blade, yet the sets of needles used for perforating postage stamps last longer if made of aluminium bronze than if made of steel.
Practically non-volatile: (copper), iron, nickel, cobalt, aluminium; also lithium, barium, strontium and calcium.