His title of El Mansur, "The Victorious," was earned by the defeat he inflicted on Alphonso VIII.
Peter died in 1285, leaving Aragon to his eldest son Alphonso, and Sicily to his second son James.
When Alphonso died in 1291 James became king of Aragon, and left his brother Frederick as regent of Sicily.
Immediately after the restoration of Alphonso XII., early in 1875, Ruiz Zorilla went to France.
Till middle life he was also lieutenant-general in Aragon for his brother and predecessor Alphonso V., whose reign was mainly spent in Italy.
ALPHONSO DELLA CUEVA, MARQUIS OF BEDMAR (157216s5), Spanish diplomatist, became ambassador to the republic of Venice in 1667.
In 1031 it became the capital of a small Moorish kingdom, and, though temporarily held by the Portuguese in 1168, it retained its independence until 1229, when it was captured by Alphonso IX.
He held a high place in the favour of King Alphonso V., who entrusted him with the management of important state affairs.
On the death of Alphonso in 1481, his counsellors and favourites were harshly treated by his successor John, and Abrabanel was compelled to flee to Spain, where he held for eight years (1484-1492) the post of a minister of state under Ferdinand and Isabella.
Of Aragon, for his father-in-law Alphonso of Castile, in 1265.
His father, Alphonso Taft (1810-1891), born in Townshend, Vermont, graduated at Yale College in 1833, became a tutor there, studied law at the Yale Law School, was admitted to the Connecticut bar in 1838, removed to Cincinnati in 1839, and became one of the most influential citizens of Ohio.
ALPHONSO VII., "the Emperor" (1126-1157), is a dignified and somewhat enigmatical figure.
But though given in charters, and claimed by Alphonso VI.
Alphonso was at once a patron of the church, and a protector if not a favourer of the Mahommedans, who formed a large part of his subjects.
Alphonso VIII >>
The castle was erected by Alphonso of Aragon; the cathedral, consecrated in 1088, has a rose window and side portal of 1481.
It fell to ALPHONSO V.
Alphonso VI of Spain >>
A military and republican rising hastened Sagasta's fall, and he was not readmitted into the councils of Alphonso XII.
ALPHONSO II., "the Fat," was born in 1185, and succeeded his father, Sancho I., in 1211.
Alphonso III of Portugal >>
Castile was left to his eldest son Sancho, Leon to Alphonso, Galicia to Garcia, Zamora and Toro to his two daughters Urraca and Elvira.
He made more than one attempt to be reconciled with Alphonso, but, his overtures being rejected, he turned his arms against the enemies of the Beni Houd, extending their dominions at the expense of the Christian states VI.
In a barbarous Latin poem, written in celebration of the conquest of Almeria by Alphonso VII.
The chief sources from which the story of the Cid is to be gathered are, first, the Latin chronicle discovered by Risco in the convent of San Isidro at Leon, proved by internal evidence to have been written before 1258; the Cronica General, composed by Alphonso X.
ALPHONSO X., El Sabio, or the learned (1252-1284), is perhaps the most interesting, though he was far from being the most capable, of the Spanish kings of the middle ages.
Alphonso XI >>
After the restoration of the monarchy under Alphonso XII.
On the 25th of January 1494 Ferdinand died and was succeeded by his son Alphonso II.
But when the French invasion became a reality he was alarmed, recognized Alphonso as king, and concluded an alliance with him in exchange for various fiefs to his sons (July 1494).
Neapolitan resistance collapsed; Alphonso fled and abdicated in favour of his son Ferdinand II., who also had to fly abandoned by all, and the kingdom was conquered with surprising ease.
The previous year), he induced the latter by threats to agree to a marriage between the duke of Bisceglie, a natural son of Alphonso II., and Lucrezia.
Shortly afterwards he induced Alphonso d'Este, son of the duke of Ferrara, to marry her, thus establishing her as heiress to one of the most important principalities in Italy (January 1502).
This schism lasted fully ten years, although the antipope found hardly any adherents outside of his own hereditary states, those of Alphonso of Aragon, of the Swiss confederation and certain universities.
Alphonso II of Spain >>
Among its curiosities still extant are two New Testament Codices of the 10th century and two of the 11th; various works by Alphonso the Wise (1252-1284), a Virgil of the 14th century, a Koran of the 15th, &c. Of the Arabic manuscripts which it contained in the 17th century a catalogue was given in J.
In 734 it was occupied by the Moors, who in turn were driven out by Alphonso I.
In 1072 it was forcibly reannexed by Garcia's brother Alphonso VI.
In 1453 hostilities against Florence were again resumed, on account of the invasions and ravages of Sienese territory committed by Florentine troops in their conflicts with Alphonso of Naples, who since 1447 had made Tuscany his battleground.
About the same time the republic was exposed to still graver danger by the conspiracy of some of its leading citizens to seize the reins of power and place the city under the suzerainty of Alphonso, as it had once been under that of the duke of Milan.
But the plot came to light; its chief ringleaders were beheaded, and many others sent into exile (1456); and the death of Alphonso at last ended all danger from that source.
Thereupon Alphonso, duke of Calabria, who was fighting in Tuscany on the side of his father Ferdinand, came to an agreement with Siena and, in the same way as his grandfather Alphonso, tried to obtain the lordship of the city and the recall of the exiled rebels in 1456.
He caused Borghese and a younger son named Fabio to be proclaimed as rebels, while a third son, Cardinal Alphonso, was strangled by order of Leo X.
The balia was reconstituted several times by the imperial agents - in 1530 by Don Lopez di Soria and Alphonso Piccolomini, duke of Amalfi, in 1540 by Granvella (or Granvelle) and in 1548 by Don Diego di Mendoza; but government was carried on as badly as before, and there was increased hatred of the Spanish rule.
King of Naples and Sicily after the latter had expressly recognized papal suzerainty, and in February 1291 concluded a treaty with Alphonso III.
Innocent's successor, Alexander IV., continued this policy, offered the Hohenstaufen lands in Germany to Alphonso X.
Immediately absolved him from all the conditions he had sworn to observe, crowned him king of the Two Sicilies (1289), and excommunicated Alphonso, while Charles of Valois, in alliance with Castile, prepared to take possession of Aragon.
Alphonso III, the Aragonese king, being hard pressed, had to promise to withdraw the troops he had sent to help his brother James in Sicily, to renounce all rights over the island, and pay a tribute to the Holy See.
But Alphonso died childless in 1291 before the treaty could be carried out, and James took possession of Aragon, leaving the government of Sicily to the third brother Frederick.
For some time the Salernitan medicine held its ground, and it was not till the conquest of Toledo by Alphonso of Castile that any large number of Western scholars came in contact with the learning of the Spanish Moors, and systematic efforts were made to translate their philosophical and medical works.
He assumed the title of Alphonso XII.; for although no king of united Spain had previously borne the name, the Spanish monarchy was regarded as continuous with the more ancient monarchy, represented by the eleven kings of Leon and Castile already referred to.
Early in 1878 Alphonso married his cousin, Princess Maria de las Mercedes, daughter of the duc de Montpensier, but she died within six months of her marriage.
Alphonso died of phthisis on the 24th of November 1885.
Alphonso XIII >>
ALPHONSUS A SANCTA MARIA, or ALPHONSO DE CARTAGENA (1396-1456), Spanish historian, was born at Carthagena, and succeeded his father, Paulus, as bishop of Burgos.
After refusing several crowned heads in marriage, Costanca was at last persuaded to accept the hand of the infante Dom Pedro, son of Alphonso the Proud, king of Portugal.