The trade of the city is principally in Bolivian products - mineral ores, alpaca wool, &c. - but it also receives and exports the products of the neighbouring Peruvian provinces, and the output of the borax deposits in the neighbourhood.
The chief breeding industry is that of the llama, alpaca and vicuiiaanimals of the Auchenia family domesticated by the Indians and bred, the first as a pack animal, and the other two for their wool, hides and meat.
The alpaca and vicuña are smaller and weaker and have never been used for this service, but their fine, glossy fleeces were used by the Indians in the manufacture of clothing and are still an important commercial asset of the elevated table-lands of Peru and Bolivia.
In 1836 Mr (afterwards Sir) Titus Salt developed the alpaca manufacture in the town; mohair was shortly afterwards introduced; and the great works at Saltaire were opened (see Shipley).
Alpaca, &c., yarn 1,022,259 1,325,519
A small deer and, in southern Ecuador, the llama (Auchenia) with its allied species, the alpaca, guanaco and vicuna, represent the ruminants.
Llamas are now confined to the western and southernmost parts of South America, though fossil remains have been found in the caves of Brazil, and in the pampas of the Argentine Republic. (See also Alpaca; Guanaco; Llama and Vicugna.) Fossil History.
ALPACA, one of two domesticated breeds of South American camel-like ungulates, derived from the wild huanaco or guanaco.
In stature the alpaca (Lama huanacos pacos) is considerably inferior to the llama, but has the same unpleasant habit of spitting.
In the textile industries "alpaca" is a name given to two distinct things.
It is, however, more broadly applied to a style of fabric originally made from the alpaca wool but now frequently made from an allied type of wool, viz.
The four species of indigenous South American wool-bearing animals are the llama, the alpaca, the guanaco and the vicuï¿½The llama and the alpaca are domesticated; the guanaco and the vicuna run wild.
Of the four the alpaca and the vicuï¿½re the most valuable wool-bearing animals: the alpaca on account of the quality and quantity, the vicuï¿½n account of the softness, fineness and quality of its wool.
In the early days of the 19th century, the usual length of alpaca staples appears to have been about 12 in., this being a three years' growth; but to-day the length is little more than about half this, i.e.
The colour of the greater proportion of alpaca imported into the United Kingdom is black and brown, but there is also a fair proportion of white, grey and fawn.
In physical structure alpaca is somewhat akin to hair, being very glossy, but its softness and fineness enable the spinner to produce satisfactory yarns with comparative ease.
Apparently alpaca yarn was spun in England for the first time about the year 1808.
It does not appear to have made any headway, however, and alpaca wool was condemned as an unworkable material.
In 1830 Benjamin Outram, of Greetland, near Halifax, appears to have again attempted the spinning of this fibre, and for the second time alpaca was condemned.
These two attempts to use alpaca were failures owing to the style of fabric into which the yarn was woven - a species of camlet.
It was not until the introduction of cotton warps into the Bradford trade about 1836 that the true qualities of alpaca could be developed in the fabric. Where the cotton warp and mohair or alpaca weft plain-cloth came from is not known, but it was this simple yet ingenious structure which enabled Titus Salt, then a young Bradford manufacturer, to utilize alpaca successfully.
Bradford is still the great spinning and manufacturing centre for alpacas, large quantities of yarns and cloths being exported annually to the continent and to the United States, although the quantities naturally vary in accordance with the fashions in vogue, the typical "alpaca-fabric" being a very characteristic "dress-fabric."
The following statistics, taken from Hooper's Statistics of the Woollen and Worsted Trades of the United Kingdom, give an idea of the extent of the trade in yarns and fabrics of the alpaca type; unfortunately statistics for alpaca alone are not published.
Alpaca, Vicuna, and Llama Wool imported into the United Kingdom.
- In 1840 the imports into, exports from, and consumed in the United Kingdom of mohair, alpaca, vicuna, &c., amounted to £50,000.
Exports of Mohair and Alpaca Yarns for T905.
Exports of Alpaca from the United Kingdom to the United States.
- 1905 4,954 Owing to the success in the manufacture of the various styles of alpaca cloths attained by Sir Titus Salt and other Bradford manufacturers, a great demand for alpaca wool arose, and this demand could not be met by the native product, for there never seems to have been any appreciable increase in the number of alpacas available.
Unsuccessful attempts were made to acclimatize the alpaca goat in England, on the European continent and in Australia, and even to cross certain English breeds of sheep 1 Grown in Peru but shipped from Valparaiso.
There is, however, a cross between the alpaca and the llama - a true hybrid in every sense - producing a material placed upon the Liverpool market under the name "Huarizo."
Crosses between the alpaca and vicuï¿½ave not proved satisfactory.
Llama), alpaca (A.
The llama and alpaca were domesticated long before the discovery of America, but the guanaco and vicuña are found in a wild state only.
The alpaca is highly prized for its fine wool, which is a staple export from Bolivia, but the animal is reared with difficulty and the product cannot be largely increased.
Not only is coarse cloth for their own garments made in this manner from the fleece of the llama, but cotton and woollen goods of a serviceable character are manufactured, and still finer fabrics are woven from the wool of the alpaca and vicuña, sometimes mixed with silk or lamb's wool.
They are skilful in the preparation of lap robes and rugs from the skins of the alpaca and vicuna.