Trade is in olive-oil, almonds and stone from the neighbouring quarries.
Other articles of export are silk cocoons, wool, hides, sponges, eggs and fruits (oranges, almonds, raisins and the like); the amounts of cotton, tobacco and wine sent out of the country are small.
6 a and its figs, oil, almonds and grain are also profitable articles of trade.
Most of the agricultural products are sent to the Peninsula; wine, figs, marble, almonds, lemons and rice to Europe and Africa.
The gardens and orchards supply great abundance of fruits, especially almonds and walnuts; and bee-keeping is common throughout the country.
It has post and telegraph offices and a lively trade in wool, cotton and dry fruits (almonds, pistachios).
The hilly regions of Limousin, Prigord and the Cvennes are the home of the chestnut, which in some places is still a staple food; walnuts grow on the lower levels of the central plateau and in lower Dauphin and Provence, figs and almonds in Provence, oranges and citrons on the Mediterranean coast, apricots in central France, the olive in Provcnce and the lower valleys of the Rhneand Durancc. Truffles arc found under Silk Cocoons.
The western side consists of stony but fertile plains, which are well cultivated and produce luxuriant crops of grain, with some cotton, vines, almonds and figs.
Almonds are widely cultivated in Sicily, Sardinia and the sor~ithern provinces; walnut trees throughout the peninsula, their wood being more important than their fruit; hazel nuts, figs, prickly pears (used in the south and the islands for hedges, their fruit being a minor consideration), peaches, pears, locust beans and pistachio nuts are among the other fruits.
The following poisons may not be sold, either retail or wholesale, unless distinctly labelled with the name of the article, and the word poison, with the name and address of the seller: Almonds, essential oil of (unless deprived of prussic acid).
Exports in 1904 were valued at £419,642, the principal items being agricultural products (oranges, lemons, carobs, almonds, grapes, valonia, &c.), value £153,858, olives and products of olives-(oil, soap, &c.), £134,788, and wines and liquors, £48,544.
Grapes, barley, esparto grass, dry figs, almonds and zinc are exported.
Thus the botanical evidence seems to indicate that the wild almond is the source of cultivated almonds, peaches and nectarines, and consequently that the peach was introduced from Asia Minor or Persia, whence the name Persica given to the peach; and Aitchison's discovery in Afghanistan of a form which reminded him of a wild peach lends additional force to this view.
In the southern districts almonds, figs, rice and olives are grown.
In 1832 he published, jointly with Willer, one of the most famous papers in the history of chemistry, that on the oil of bitter almonds (benzaldehyde), wherein it was shown that the radicle benzoyl might be regarded as forming an unchanging constituent of a long series of compounds obtained from oil of bitter almonds, throughout which it behaved like an element.
Viticulture is also of importance; almonds, oranges, lemons, &c., are also grown for export.
The prosperity of the town is largely due to the export trade in phosphates, esparto grass, oil, almonds, pistachio nuts, sponges, wool, &c. There is in the Gulf of Gabes a rise and fall of 5 ft.
There are post and telegraph offices, and a great export trade is done in pistachios and almonds, the latter being of the kind called Kaghazi (" of paper") with very thin shells, famous throughout the country.
Palma has a thriving trade in grain, wine, oil, almonds, fruit, vegetables, silk, foodstuffs and livestock.
Maize, millet, rye, flax, liquorice and fruits of all sorts - especially nuts, almonds, oranges, figs, walnuts and chestnuts - are produced.
The free acid is a colourless liquid with a smell resembling bitter almonds; it boils at 26.1° C., and may be solidified, in which condition it melts at -14° C. It burns with a blue flame,.
BENZALDEHYDE (oil of bitter almonds), C 6 H 5 CHO, the simplest representative of the aromatic aldehydes.
It occurs naturally in the form of the glucoside amygdalin (C20H27N011), which is present in bitter almonds, cherries, peaches and the leaves of the cherry laurel; and is obtained from this substance by hydrolysis with dilute acids: C20H27N011+2H20 =HCN+2C6H,206+C6H5CHO.
It occurs free in bitter almonds, being formed by an enzyme decomposition of amygdalin.
The exports, which include beans, almonds, maize, chick-peas, wool, hides, wax, eggs, &c., were valued at 360,000 in 1900, £364,000 in 1904, and £248,000 in 1906.
It exports pistachios, almonds and coarse tobacco.
One of the earliest, if not the earliest, was the investigation, published in 1830, which proved the polymerism of cyanic and cyanuric acid, but the most famous were those on the oil of bitter almonds (benzaldehyde) and the radicle benzoyl (1832), and on uric acid (1837), which are of fundamental importance in the history of organic chemistry.
Is considerable, the whole of the north and north-east coast from the Bay of Castellammare round to Catania is an endless succession of orchards, in which oranges, citrons and lemons alternate with olives, almonds, pomegranates, figs, carob trees, pistachios, mulberries and vines.
Almonds are freely cultivated, and they seem to be the only trees susceptible also of cultivation upon the latifondi together with grain.
A large export trade in almonds is carried on with north and central Europe.
Fruits abound, as apples, pears, peaches, apricots, plums, cherries, chestnuts and almonds; mulberries are also cultivated.
Other fruit trees are abundant, though less so than those we have men - tioned: such are pomegranates, pears, almonds, peaches, and, in the warmer part of the country, palms. Apples are few and poor in quality.
Catania has a considerable export trade in sulphur, pumice stone, asphalt, oranges and lemons, almonds, filberts, cereals, wine (the total production of wine in the province amounted to 28,600,000 gallons in 1905) and oil.
This is the most fertile tract in Greece, and at the present day produces oranges, citrons, almonds, figs, grapes and olives in great abundance and of excellent quality.
The supremacy of the state is established in the growth of oranges, lemons, citrons, olives, figs, almonds, Persian (or English) walnuts, plums and prunes, grapes and raisins, nectarines, apricots and pomegranates; it also leads in pears and peaches, but here its primacy is not so assured.
Almonds, as well as peaches, pears, plums, cherries and apricots, come mainly from the north.
The Persian fruit is excellent and abundant, and large quantities, principally dried and called khushkbar (dry fruit), as quinces, peaches, apricots, plums (of several kinds), raisins, figs, almonds, pistachios, walnuts and dates (the last only from the south), as well as oranges (only from the Caspian provinces), are exported.
It is the best-built port of the sultanate and is generally second in point of trade, which is carried on mainly with Marseilles, London, Gibraltar and the Canaries, the principal exports being almonds, goat-skins, gums and olive-oil, and the principal imports cotton goods, sugar and tea.
The date palm fruits well; figs grow luxuriantly, though requiring much irrigation; almonds do well if protected from spring frosts; seaisland cotton grows in the finest grades, but is not of commercial importance.
The valleys near the sea are well adapted for agriculture; oranges, lemons, almonds and other fruit trees thrive; silk is produced in the west; and the vine is extensively cultivated, less for the production of wine than to meet the foreign demand for white Almeria grapes.
Further instruction was given at various horticultural institutes in the towns, notably the Botanic Gardens and Institute of Bucharest, where the experiments in planting figs, almonds, hops and cotton yielded favourable results.
Oranges and lemons, excluded from the plateau by the severity of the Winter cold, are grown in great quantities on the plains of Andalusia and all round the Mediterranean coast; the peel of the bigarade or bitter orange is exported to Holland for the manufacture of curacao; and figs, almonds, pomegranates, carobs and other southern fruits are also grown abundantly in all the warmer parts, the first two even in central Spain and the more sheltered parts of the northern maritime provinces.
A few do not exist ready formed in the plants, but result from chemical change of inodorous substances; as for instance, bitter almonds and essential oil of mustard.
- This includes compounds of cyanogen such as hydrocyanic (prussic) acid, cyanides of potassium, sodium, &c., cherry-laurel water, amygdalin, bitter almonds and other chemical and vegetable substances which readily yield hydrocyanic acid.