The state is divided into two distinct physiographic provinces; the Alleghany Plateau on the west, comprising perhaps two-thirds of the area of the state, and forming a part of the great Appalachian Plateau Province which extends from New York to Alabama; and the Newer Appalachians or Great Valley Region on the east, being a part of the large province of the same name which extends from Canada to Central Alabama.
The Alleghany Plateau consists of nearly horizontal beds of limestone, sandstone and shales, including important seams of coal; inclines slightly toward the north-west, and is intricately dissected by extensively branching streams into a maze of narrow canyons and steep-sided hills.
Are reached along the south-east margin of the plateau, which is known as the Alleghany Front.
P. Hale, Trans-Alleghany Pioneers (Cincinnati, 1887); W.
And the new states west of the Alleghany Mountains, which grew into presbyteries and synods having peculiar features midway between Presbyterianism and Congregationalism.
The state lies on the borderland between the Prairie Plains and the Alleghany Plateau.
Since this plateau region is a northward extension of the Alleghany plateau, which skirts the western base of the Appalachian mountains, it rises as the mountains are approached.
It grows wild in woods in some parts of England, and in Europe, northern Asia and the Alleghany Mountains of North America.
In national affairs Maryland early took a stand of perhaps farreaching consequences in refusing to sign the Articles of Confederation (which required the assent of all the states before coming into effect), after all the other states had done so (in 1779), until those states claiming territory between the Alleghany Mountains and the Mississippi and north of the Ohio - Virginia, New York, Massachusetts and Connecticut - should have surrendered such claims. As those states finally yielded, the Union was strengthened by reason of a greater equality and consequently less jealousy among the original states, and the United States came into possession of the first territory in which all the states had a common interest and out of which new states were to be created.
The entire eastern quarter of the state, coterminous with the Eastern Kentucky coalfield, is commonly known as the region of the " mountains," but with the exception of the narrow area just described it properly belongs to the Alleghany Plateau Province.
In the north-west, and is generally much less rugged than the Alleghany Plateau; a peculiar feature of the southern portion of it is the numerous circular depressions (sink holes) in the surface and the cavernous region beneath.
Most of the larger rivers of the state have their sources among the mountains or on the Alleghany Plateau and flow more or less circuitously in a general north-western direction into the Ohio.
Although deep river channels are common, falls or impassable rapids are rare west of the Alleghany Plateau, and the state has an extensive mileage of navigable waters.
On the mountains and on the Alleghany Plateau, also, much of the soil is very light and thin.
The settlement and the development of that part of the United States west of the Alleghany Mountains has probably been the most notable feature of American history since the close of the Seven Years' War (1763).
Kentucky was the first settlement in this movement, the first state west of the Alleghany Mountains admitted into the Union.
Half of New Hampshire are many song birds belonging to the Alleghany faunal area; in the N.
The linear ridges of this mIddle section are often called the Alleghany Mountains.
When the peneplain was uplifted the weaker strata were worn down almost to a lowland of a second generation, while the resistant sandstones, of which there a1~- three chief members, retained a great part of their new-gained altitude in the form of long, narrow, even-crested ridges, well deserving of the name of Endless Motintains given them by the Indians, but here and there bending sharply in peculiar zigzags which give this Alleghany section of the mountains an unusual individuality.
The transition from the strongly folded structure of the Alleghany ridges and valleys to the nearly horizontal structure of the Appala; chian plateau is promptly made; and with the change of structure comes an appropriate change of form.
In the middle section, as already stated, the Great Valley is somewhat open on the east, by reason of the small height and broad interruptions of the narrow crystalline belt; on the west it is limited by the complex series of Alleghany ridges and valleys; in the north-east section the valley is strongly enclosed on the east by the New England uplands, and on the west by the Adirondacks and Catskills (see below); in the south-west section the valley broadens from the North Carolina highlands on the south-east almost to the Cumberland plateau on the north-west, for here also the ridge-making formations weaken, although they do not entirely disappear.
The same Paiaeozoic formations that are folded in the belt of the Alleghany ridges lie nearly horizontal in the plateau district next north-west.
Alleghany formation 165 300,,
- Pennsylvania skirts the coastal plain in the south-east below Philadelphia, is traversed from north-east to south-west by the three divisions of the Appalachian province - Piedmont or older Appalachian belt, younger Appalachian ridges and valleys and Alleghany plateau - and in the north-west corner is a small part of the Erie plain.
The Pennsylvania portion of the younger Appalachian ridges and valleys, known as the central province of the state, embraces the region between the South Mountains, on the south-east, and the crest of the Alleghany plateau or Alleghany Front, on the north-west.
The Alleghany plateau, which extends from the crest of the Alleghany Front to and beyond the west and north borders of Pennsylvania and covers more than one-half of the state, is much more dissected.
The Pocono plateau, nearly all of the central and south-east provinces and the north-east portion of the Alleghany plateau are drained by the Susquehanna and Delaware river-systems into the Chesapeake and Delaware Bays; the greater part of the Alleghany plateau is drained by the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers into the Ohio river; the extreme southern portion of the central province and the extreme western portion of the south-east province are drained by tributaries of the Potomac; the Erie plain is drained by short streams into Lake Erie; and a very small section of the Alleghany plateau, in the northern part of Potter county, is drained by the Genesee river into Lake Ontario.
The mean annual temperature decreases to the north-westward on the Alleghany plateau, but on the Erie plain, in the extreme north-west, Lake Erie exerts its moderating influence, the mean temperature rises, and extremes shorten.
The mean annual temperature in the south-east province is about 52° F.; it decreases to 50° in the central province and to 47° or less in some of the north-west counties of the Alleghany plateau, but rises to 49° on the shore of Lake Erie.
And embraces about all of the Pennsylvania section of the Alleghany plateau except a narrow belt along its east and south-east border.
Work was begun on the system in 1826 and was continued without interruption until 1840, when the completed or nearly completed portions embraced a railway from Philadelphia to Columbia on the Susquehanna, a canal up the Susquehanna and the Juniata from Columbia to Hollidaysburg, a portage railway from Hollidaysburg through Blair's Gap in the Alleghany Front to Johnstown on the Conemaugh river, a canal down the Conemaugh, Kiskiminetas, and Allegheny rivers to Pittsburg, a canal up the Susquehanna and its west branch from the mouth of the Juniata to Farrandsville, in Clinton county, a canal up the Susquehanna and its north branch from Northumberland nearly to the New York border, and a canal up the Delaware river from Bristol to the mouth of the Lehigh; considerable work had also been done on two canals to connect the Ohio river with Lake Erie.
Details of the calculated orbits of 63 spectroscopic binaries are given in Publications of the Alleghany Observatory, vol.
White Sulphur Springs, in Greenbrier county, impregnated with sulphur, with therapeutic application in jaundice, dyspepsia, &c.; Alleghany Springs, in Montgomery (disambiguation)|Montgomery county, calcareous and earthy, purgative and diuretic; Rawley Springs in Rockingham county, Sweet Chalybeate Springs in Alleghany county, and Rockbridge Alum Springs in Rockbridge county, classed as iron springs and reputed of value as tonics, and the thermal springs, Healing Springs (88° F.) and Hot Springs (Iio F.), both in Bath (disambiguation)|Bath county are noted medicinal springs.
President Lincoln offered a very liberal plan of re-establishing the civil authority over the counties east of the Alleghany mountains, and Governor Francis H.
The Pittsburg Gazette-Times is probably the oldest newspaper west of the Alleghany Mountains; the Gazette was founded in 1786 and in 1 9 06 was consolidated with the Times (1879).