Practically any vessel may serve as a receiver - test tube, flask, beaker, &c. If noxious vapours come over, it is necessary to have an air-tight connexion between the condenser and receiver, and to pro vide the latter with an outlet tube leading to an absorption column or other contrivance in which the vapours are taken up. If the substances operated upon decompose when heated in air, as, for example, the zinc alkyls which inflame, the air within the apparatus is replaced by some inert gas, e.g.
On treatment with zinc and alkyl iodides or with zinc alkyls they are converted into esters of hydroxy-dialkyl acetic acids.
Chablay, Comptes rendus, 1906, 1 43, p. 123) 2CH 2 :CH CH 2 OH+2NH 3 Na = CH,:CH CH3+CH2:CH CH20Na +NaOH+2NH31 from the lower members of the series by heating them with alkyl halides in the presence of lead oxide or lime: C5H,9-I-2CH31 =2H1+ C 7 H, 4 i and by the action of the zinc alkyls upon the halogen substituted olefines.
CH(CH 3) CO 2 HC 2 H 5 CO CH 2 CH3; and by the action of zinc alkyls on acid chlorides (M.
They are also formed by the interaction of phosphorus trichloride and zinc alkyls (Cahours and.
By replacing two of the hydrogen atoms, either by the same or different alkyls, compounds of the formula (Rï¿½R 1)CHï¿½OH (i.e.
Secondary alcohols result from the reduction of ketones; and from the reaction of zinc alkyls on aldehydes or formic acid esters.