They add on alkyl iodides readily, forming alkyl azonium salts.
The hydrogen of the hydroxyl group in phenol can be replaced by metals, by alkyl groups and by acid radicals.
The alkyl derivatives may be obtained by heating phenol with one molecular proportion of a caustic alkali and of an alkyl iodide.
Alkyl compounds of germanium such as germanium tetra-ethyl, Ge(C2H5)4, a liquid boiling at C., have been obtained.
It is a most important synthetic reagent; with sodium or sodium ethylate it forms sodio-malonic ester, which reacts readily with alkyl halides, forming alkyl malonic esters, which are again capable of forming sodium derivatives, that by further treatment with alkyl halides yield the di-alkyl malonic esters.
These esters are readily hydrolysed and yield the monoand di-alkylimalonic acids which, on heating, are readily decomposed, with evolution of carbon dioxide and the formation of monoand di-alkyl acetic acids.
Carbon bisulphide combines with primary amines to form alkyl dithiocarbamates, which when heated lose sulphuretted hydrogen and leave a residue of a dialkyl thio-urea, CS 2 +2R NH 2 - R NH CSS NH 3 RCS(NHR)2+H2S; or if the aqueous solution of the dithiocarbamate be boiled with mercuric chloride or silver nitrate solution, a mustard oil (q.v.) is formed, R.NH CSS NH3R+HgC12-Hg(R NH CSS)2->2RNCS-}-HgS+H2S.
We may also notice that thio-ethers combine with alkyl iodides to form sulphide or sulphonium compounds, R3; SI.
We proceed to consider various simple derivatives of the alcohols, which we may here regard as hydroxy hydrocarbons, R OH, where R is an alkyl radical, either aliphatic or cyclic in nature.
In fact, the analogy between the alkyl groups and metallic elements forms a convenient basis from which to consider many derivatives.
NH 2; secondary, R2: NH; and tertiary, R3: N; the oxamines, R 3 N :0, are closely related to the tertiary ammonias, which also unite with a molecule of alkyl iodide to form salts of quaternary ammonium bases, e.g.
The amines also exhibit striking differences: in the aliphatic series these compounds may be directly formed from the alkyl haloids and ammonia, but in the benzene series this reaction is quite impossible unless the haloid atom be weakened by the presence of other substituents, e.g.
On the chromophoreauxochrome theory (the nitro group being the chromophore, and the hydroxyl the auxochrome) it is necessary in order to explain the high colour of the metallic salts and the colourless alkyl and aryl derivatives to assume that the auxochromic action of the hydroxyl group is only brought strongly into evidence by salt formation.
The measure of the loss of symmetry associated with the introduction of alkyl groups depends upon the relative magnitudes of the substituent group and the rest of the molecule; and the larger the molecule, the less would be the morphotropic effect of any particular substituent.
Other substituent groups exercise morphotropic effects similar to those exhibited by the alkyl radicles; investigations have been made on halogen-, hydroxy-, and nitro-derivatives of benzene and substituted benzenes.
The N-derivatives are prepared by the action of alkyl halides and acid chlorides on potassium pyrrol.
Beckmann, Ber., 1886, 1 9, p. 9 8 9; 188 7, 20, p. 2580), yielding as final products an acid-amide or anilide, thus: RC(:N OH)R'-RC(OH) :NR' ---> As regards the constitution of the oximes, two possibilities exist, namely >C: NOH, or > C' ?, and the first of these is presumably correct, since on alkylation and subsequent hydrolysis an alkyl hydroxylamine of the type NH 2 OR is obtained, and consequently it is to be presumed that in the alkylated oxime, the alkyl group is attached to oxygen, and the oxime itself therefore contains the hydroxyl group. It is to be noted that the oximes of aromatic aldehydes and of unsymmetrical aromatic ketones frequently exist in isomeric forms. This isomerism is explained by the HantzschWerner hypothesis (Ber., 1890, 23, p. II) in which the assumption is made that the three valencies of the nitrogen atom do not lie in the same plane.
They may also be prepared by the reduction of primary nitro compounds with stannous chloride and concentrated hydrochloric acid; by the reduction of unsaturated nitro compounds with minium amalgam or zinc dust in the presence of dilute acetic acid' Bouveault, Comptes rendus, 1902, 134, p. 1145):R2C:[[Chno 2 -R 2 C: Ch Nhoh - R 2 Ch Ch: Noh]], and by the action of alkyl iodides on the sodium salt of nitro-hydroxylamine (A.
The thiazoles are somewhat basic in character, and combine with the alkyl iodides to form thiazolium iodides.
These salts are like those of tin; and the resemblance to this metal is clearly enhanced by the study of the alkyl compounds.
ALDEHYDES, a class of chemical compounds of the general formula Rï¿½CHO (R=an alkyl or an aryl group).
Soc. chim., 1904 [31, 31, p.1306) prepares aldehydes by the gradual addition of disubstituted formamides (dissolved in anhydrous ether) to magnesium alkyl haloids, the best yields being obtained by the use of diethyl formamide.
In the German Patent 1 57573 (1904) it is shown that by the action of at least two molecular proportions of an alkyl formate on two molecular proportions of a magnesium alkyl or aryl haloid, a complex addition compound is formed, which readily decomposes into a basic magnesium salt and an aldehyde, C H MgBr-f-H000R-ROï¿½CHï¿½C H.
Grignard (Comptes Rendus, 1900 et seq.) showed that aldehydes combine with magnesium alkyl iodides (in absolute ether solution) to form addition products, which are decomposed by water with the formation of secondary alcohols, thus from acetaldehyde and magnesium methyl iodide, isopropyl alcohol is obtained.
Aiphatic Nitro Compounds.-The nitroparaffins may be obtained by the action of the alkyl iodides on silver nitrite (V.
Stannous chloride and hydrochloric acid reduce the nitroparaffins to 0-alkyl hydroxylamines, amines and some ammonia being simultaneously produced (V.
The nitrate of this base (known as nitron) is so insoluble that nitrates may be gravimetrically estimated with its help. These bases combine with the alkyl iodides to yield quaternary ammonium salts.
They combine readily with the alkyl iodides to form alkyl acridinium iodides, which are readily transformed by the action of alkaline potassium ferricyanide to N-alkyl acridones.
The organic derivatives of silicon resemble the corresponding carbon compounds except in so far that the silicon atom is not capable of combining with itself to form a complex chain in the same manner as the carbon atom, the limit at present being a chain of three silicon atoms. Many of the earlier-known silicon alkyl compounds were isolated by Friedel and Crafts and by Ladenburg, the method adopted consisting in the interaction of the zinc alkyl compounds with silicon halides or esters of silicic acids.
Taurke (Ber., 1905, 38, p. 1663) by condensing silicon halides with alkyl chlorides in the presence of sodium: SiC14-1-4R Cl+8Na= SiR 4 +8NaCI; SiHC1 3 +3R.
The normal esters may be prepared by the action of silver carbonate on the alkyl iodides, or by the action of alcohols on the chlorcarbonic esters.
By heating with phosphorus pentachloride an alkyl group is eliminated and a chlorcarbonic ester formed.
To the alkyl glucosides.
This formula, which necessitates the presence of two asymmetric carbon atoms in an alkyl tetrahydroberberine, has been accepted by M.
AMINES, in chemistry, derivatives of ammonia in which one or more of the hydrogen atoms are replaced by alkyl or aryl groups.
The replacement of one hydrogen atom by one alkyl or aryl group gives rise to primary amines; of two hydrogen atoms by two groups, to secondary amines; of three hydrogen atoms by three groups, to tertiary amines.
The tertiary amines possess the power of combining with one molecular proportion of an alkyl iodide to form quaternary ammonium salts.
The primary amines may also be prepared by heating the alkyl iodides with ammonia (A.
Goldschmidt, Ber., 1886, 19, p. 3232); by the action of dilute hydrochloric acid on the isonitriles, Rï¿½NC+2H20=Rï¿½NH2-}-H2C02; by heating the mustard oils with a mineral acid, by the hydrolysis of the alkyl phthalimides (S.
By the action of ammonia on the alkyl iodides a complex mixture of primary, secondary and tertiary amines, along with a quaternary ammonium salt, is obtained, the separation of which is difficult.
At a temperature of about 300-400° C. the alkyl chloride formed in this reaction attacks the benzene nucleus and replaces hydrogen by an alkyl group or groups, forming primary amines homologous with the original amine; thus methylaniline hydrochloride is converted into paraand ortho-toluidine hydrochloride, and trimethyl phenyl ammonium iodide is converted into mesidine hydriodide.
When heated with alkyl or aryl iodides, they are converted into secondary and tertiary amines.
The secondary amines may be of two types-namely,the purely aromatic amines, and the mixed secondary amines, which contain an aromatic residue and an alkyl group. The purely aromatic amines result upon heating the primary amines with their hydrochlorides, and, in some cases, by heating a phenol with a primary amine and anhydrous zinc chloride.
The mixed secondary amines are prepared by the action of alkyl iodides on the primary amines, or by heating salts of the primary amine with alcohols under pressure.
The mixed tertiary amines are produced by the action of alkyl halides on the primary amines.
OH, termed the carboxyl group, in which the hydrogen atom is replaceable by metals with the formation of salts, and by alkyl radicals with the formation of esters.
On treatment with zinc and alkyl iodides or with zinc alkyls they are converted into esters of hydroxy-dialkyl acetic acids.
3, p. 319.) Ammonia finds a wide application in organic chemistry as a synthetic reagent; it reacts with alkyl iodides to form amines, with esters to form acid amides, with halogen fatty acids to form amino-acids; while it also combines with isocyanic esters to form alkyl ureas and with the mustard oils to form alkyl thioureas.
Their alkyl derivatives readily oxidize to pyrazine carboxylic acids.
They may also be prepared by eliminating the halogen hydride from the alkyl halides by heating with alcoholic potash, or with litharge at 220° C. (A.