These four alkaloids exist in combination in tobacco chiefly as malates and citrates.
Nicoteine is a liquid which boils at 267° C. It is separated from the other alkaloids of the group by distilling off the nicotine and nicotimine in steam and then fractionating the residue.
The Poisons and Pharmacy Act of 1908 extended the schedule of poisons instituted by the act of 1868, and it now includes arsenic, aconite, aconitine and their preparations; all poisonous vegetable alkaloids, and their salts and poisonous derivatives; atropine and its salts and their preparations; belladonna and all preparations or admixtures (except belladonna plasters) containing 0.1% or more of belladonna alkaloid; cantharides and its poisonous derivatives; any preparation or admixture of coca-leaves containing 0.1% or more of coca alkaloids; corrosive sublimate; cyanide of potassium and all poisonous cyanides and their preparations; tartar emetic, nux vomica, and all preparations or admixtures containing 0.2% or more of strychnine; opium and all preparations and admixtures containing 1% or more of morphine; picro-toxine; prussic acid and all preparations and admixtures containing o i% or more of prussic acid; savin and its oil, and all preparations or admixtures containing savin or its oil.
They possess a delicate Laticiferous layer of protoplasm, with numerous small nuclei lining Tissue the walls, while the interior of the tube (corresponding with the cell-vacuole) contains a fluid called latex, consisting of an emulsion of fine granules and drops of very various substances suspended in a watery medium in which various other substances (salts, sugars, rubber-producers, tannins, alkaloids and various enzymes) are dissolved.
The cell sap contains various substances in solution such as sugars, inulin, alkaloids, glucosides, organic acids and various inorganic salts.
The chief constituents of colchicum are two alkaloids, colchicine and veratrine.
In its medicinal use glycerin is an excellent solvent for such substances as iodine, alkaloids, alkalis, &c., and is therefore used for applying them to diseased surfaces, especially as it aids in their absorption.
The limits of space prevent any systematic account of the separation of the rare metals, the alkaloids, and other classes of organic compounds, but sources where these matters may be found are given in the list of references.
The first class includes those substances which require no preliminary treatment, and comprises the amides and ammonium compounds, pyridines, quinolines, alkaloids, albumens and related bodies; the second class requires preliminary treatment and comprises, with few exceptions, the nitro-, nitroso-, azo-, diazoand amidoazo-compounds, hydrazines, derivatives of nitric and nitrous acids, and probably cyanogen compounds.
This, and allied alkaloids, have formed the subject of many investigations by Wyndham Dunstan and his pupils in England, and by Martin Freund and Paul Beck in Berlin.
Hydrolysis gives acetic acid and benzaconine, the chief constituent of the alkaloids picraconitine and napelline; further hydrolysis gives aconine.
Other related alkaloids are lycaconitine and myoctonine which occur in wolfsbane, Aconitum lycoctonum.
Certain of these are alkaloids, others appear to be albumoses.
In regard to methods and apparatus, mention should be made of his improvements in the technique of organic analysis, his plan for determining the natural alkaloids and for ascertaining the molecular weights of organic bases b y means of their chloroplatinates, his process for determining the quantity of urea in a solution - the first step towards the introduction of precise chemical methods into practical medicine - and his invention of the simple form of condenser known in every laboratory.
BERBERINE, C 20 H 17 N0 4, an alkaloid occurring together with the alkaloids oxyacanthine C18H19N03, berbamine C18H19N03, hydrastine C21H21N06, and canadine C 20 H 21 N0 4, in Berberis vulgaris; it also occurs in other plants, Berberis aristata, B.
==Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics of Alcohol== Alcohol is of great medicinal value as a solvent, being used to form solutions of alkaloids, resins, volatile oils, iodoform, &c. In strength of about 10% and upwards it is an antiseptic. If applied to the skin it rapidly evaporates, thereby cooling the skin and diminishing the amount of sweat excreted.
Auric chloride combines with the hydrochlorides of many organic bases - amines, alkaloids, &c. - to form characteristic compounds.
This work led naturally to the synthesis of many terpenes and members of the camphor group; also to the investigation of various alkaloids and natural colouring matters.
His chief researches deal with the polymethylene compounds, the alkaloids, in particular hydrastine and berberine, and the camphors and terpenes.
The alkaloid arecaidine, C7H11N02, occurs in areca or betel nuts, together with three other alkaloids: arecoline, C$H13N02, guvacine, C 6 H 9 NO 2, and arecaine, C1H11N02.
A chemical classification of alkaloids is difficult on account of their complex constitution.
Konigs, expressed the opinion that the alkaloids were derivatives of pyridine or quinoline.
This view has been fairly well supported by later discoveries; but, in addition to pyridine and quinoline nuclei, alkaloids derived from isoquinoline are known.
The purely chemical literature on the alkaloids is especially voluminous; and from the assiduity with which the constitutions of these substances have been and are still being attacked, we may conclude that their synthesis is but a question of time.
Piperine, conine, atropine, belladonine, cocaine, hyoscyamine and nicotine have been already synthesized; the constitution of several others requires confirmation, while there remain many important alkaloids - quinine, morphine, strychnine, &c. - whose constitution remains unknown.
The following classification is simple and convenient; the list of alkaloids makes no pretence at being exhaustive.
(2) Tropine group. Alkaloids characterized by containing the tropine nucleus.
(3) Quinoline group. The alkaloids of the quina-barks: quinine, &c.; the strychnos bases: strychnine, brucine; and the veratrum alkaloids: veratrine, cevadine, &c.
(4) Isoquinoline group. The opium alkaloids: morphine, codeine, thebaine, papaverine, narcotine, narceine, &c.; and the complicated substances hydrastine and berberine.
Reference should also be made to the articles on the individual alkaloids for further details as to their medicinal and chemical properties.
The chemistry of the alkaloids is treated in detail by Ame Pictet in his La Constitution chimique des alcaloides vegetaux (Paris, 1897); enlarged and translated by H.
C. Biddle with the title The Vegetable Alkaloids (New York, 1904); and by J.
He is known for a long series of researches on the constitution of alkaloids and of the albuminoid bodies, and for the preparation of several new series of platinum compounds and of hyposulphurous acid, H 2 S 2 O 4.
Subsequently 3 he subjected the ultra-violet absorption of the alkaloids to a careful 1 Wied.
Investigation, and arrived at the conclusion that the spectra are sufficiently characteristic to " offer a ready and valuable means of ascertaining the purity of the alkaloids and particularly of establishing their identity."
As alkaloids are insoluble in alkaline solutions, the oxide and carbonate - especially the former - may be given in alkaloidal poisoning.
It is an exceedingly good solvent, especially for fats, alkaloids and iodine.
Invisible to the microscope, but rendered visible by reagents, are glycogen, Mucor, Ascomycetes, yeast, &c. In addition to these cell-contents we have good indirect evidence of the existence of large series of other bodies, such as proteids, carbohydrates, organic acids, alkaloids, enzymes, &c. These must not be confounded with the numerous substances obtained by chemical analysis of masses of the fungus, as there is often no proof of the manner of occurrence of such bodies, though we may conclude with a good show of probability that some of them also exist preformed in the living cell.
Bell y donna, " beautiful lady," the berries having been used as a cosmetic), the roots and leaves of Atropa belladonna, or deadly nightshade, widely used in medicine on account of the alkaloids which they contain.
It is to be noted that children, who are particularly susceptible to the influence of certain of the other potent alkaloids, such as morphine and strychnine, will take relatively large doses of atropine without ill-effect.
He also studied the alkaloids and organic acids, introduced a classification of the metals according to the facility with which they or their sulphides are oxidized by steam at high temperatures, and effected a comparison of the chemical composition of atmospheric air from all parts of the world.
It is associated with many other alkaloids: cinnamyl cocaine, C19H23N04; a-truxilline (C19H23N04) 2; /3-truxilline, (C19H23N04) 2; benzoylecgonine, C 16 H 19 NO 2 j tropa-cocaine, C15H19N02; hygrine, C 8 H 15 NO; cuscohygrine, C13H24N02.
Cocaine in which the benzoyl group is replaced by the cinnamyl group. aand 3-truxillines, named from their isolation from a coca of Truxillo (Peru), are two isomeric alkaloids which hydrolyse to ecgonine, methyl alcohol, and two isomeric acids, the truxillic acids, C18H1604.
The alkaloids are therefore methyl truxillylecgonines.
It is incompatible with mineral acids, alkalis, salts of iron, antimony, lead and silver, alkaloids and gelatin.
Pain may be stopped by removing the cause of irritation, as, for example, by the extraction of a carious tooth or by rendering the nerveendings insensitive to irritation, as by the application of cocaine; by preventing its transmission along the spinal cord by antipyrin, phenacetin, acetanilide, cocaine, &c.; or by dulling the perceptive centre in the brain by means of opium or its alkaloids, by anaesthetics, and probably also, to a certain extent, by antipyrin and its congeners.
The remedy most trusted to in this disease is opium and its alkaloids, morphine and codeine.
Brieger, in his earlier work, found that alkaloids were formed by bacteria in a variety of conditions, and that some of them were poisonous.
These alkaloids he called ptomaines.
Amongst the latter, the vegetable poisons of known constitution, alkaloids, glucosides, &c., are to be placed.
A small amount of opium alkaloids only is manufactured in India.
Subsequent investigations have revealed some twenty or more alkaloids, the more important of which are given in the following table (from A.
The alkaloids fall into two chemical groups: (i) derivatives of isoquinoline, including papaverine, narcotine, gnoscopine (racemic narcotine), narceine, laudanosine, laudanine, cotarnine, hydrocotarnine (the last two do not occur in opium), and (2) derivatives of phenanthrene, including morphine, codeine, thebaine.
That these alkaloids are closely related may be suspected from their empirical formulae, viz.morphine = C17H19N03, codeine = C18H21N03, thebaine = C19H21N03.
Our knowledge of the constitution of these alkaloids largely depends on the researches of M.
The presence of the phenanthrene nucleus and the chain system CH 3 N C C follows from the fact that these alkaloids, by appropriate treatment, yield a substituted phenanthrene and also dimethylaminoethanol (CH3)2N CH2 CH20H.
- Of the opium alkaloids only morphine and codeine are used to any extent in medicine.
Of the other alkaloids narceine is hypnotic, like morphine and codeine, whilst thebaine, papaverine and narcotine have an action which resembles that of strychnine, and is, generally speaking, undesirable or dangerous if at all well marked.
By this process of preparation a considerable portion of the narcotine, caoutchouc, resin, oil or fatty and insoluble matters are removed, and the prolonged boiling, evaporating and baking over a naked fire tend to lessen the amount of alkaloids present in the extract.
The only alkaloids likely to remain in the prepared opium, and capable of producing well-marked physiological results, are morphine, codeine and narceine.
It is a decomposition product of various alkaloids (nicotine, sparteine, cinchonine, &c.), being formed when they are strongly heated either alone or with zinc dust.
In 1810 Gomez of Lisbon obtained a mixture of alkaloids which he named cinchonino, by treating an alcoholic extract of the bark with water and then adding a solution of caustic potash.
In 1820 Pelletier and Caventou proved that the cinchonino of Gomez contained two alkaloids, which they named quinine and cinchonine.