NICOTINE, C10H14N2, an alkaloid, found with small quantities of nicotimine, C 19 H 14 N 2, nicoteine, C10H12N2, and nicotelline, C 10 H 8 N 2, in tobacco.
The alkaloid is obtained from an aqueous extract of tobacco by distillation with slaked lime, the distillate being acidified with oxalic acid, concentrated to a syrup and decomposed by potash.
The free alkaloid is strongly laevo-rotatory.
Thus the groupings J_C C - - C C - >N CH 3 and - C C C N exist in the molecule, and the alkaloid is to be represented as a-pyridyl-N-methyl-pyrollidine.
The Poisons and Pharmacy Act of 1908 extended the schedule of poisons instituted by the act of 1868, and it now includes arsenic, aconite, aconitine and their preparations; all poisonous vegetable alkaloids, and their salts and poisonous derivatives; atropine and its salts and their preparations; belladonna and all preparations or admixtures (except belladonna plasters) containing 0.1% or more of belladonna alkaloid; cantharides and its poisonous derivatives; any preparation or admixture of coca-leaves containing 0.1% or more of coca alkaloids; corrosive sublimate; cyanide of potassium and all poisonous cyanides and their preparations; tartar emetic, nux vomica, and all preparations or admixtures containing 0.2% or more of strychnine; opium and all preparations and admixtures containing 1% or more of morphine; picro-toxine; prussic acid and all preparations and admixtures containing o i% or more of prussic acid; savin and its oil, and all preparations or admixtures containing savin or its oil.
Opium is obtained from the latex of the opium poppy (Pa paver somniferum), which contains the alkaloid morphine.
It contains considerable quantities of the alkaloid pseudaconitine, which is the most deadly poison known.
==Chemistry== The active principle of Aconitum Napellus is the alkaloid aconitine, first examined by P. L.
The official preparation is an ointment which contains one part of the alkaloid in fifty.
BRUCINE, C23H26N201, an alkaloid isolated in 1819 by J.
PIPERINE, C17H,9N03, an alkaloid found in the fruits of Piper nigrum and P. longum.
BERBERINE, C 20 H 17 N0 4, an alkaloid occurring together with the alkaloids oxyacanthine C18H19N03, berbamine C18H19N03, hydrastine C21H21N06, and canadine C 20 H 21 N0 4, in Berberis vulgaris; it also occurs in other plants, Berberis aristata, B.
But the forests of Huanuco and Huamalios abound in species yielding the grey bark of commerce, which is rich in cinchonine, an alkaloid efficacious as a febrifuge, though inferior to quinine.
BIBIRINE, or Bebeerine, C19H21N03, an alkaloid obtained from the bark and fruit of the greenheart tree, Nectandra rodiaei, called bibiru or sipiri in Guiana, where the tree grows.
PILOCARPINE, C11H16N202, an alkaloid found, together with isopilocarpine and other related compounds, in the leaves of jaborandi (Pilocarpus pennatifolius).
The alkaloid arecaidine, C7H11N02, occurs in areca or betel nuts, together with three other alkaloids: arecoline, C$H13N02, guvacine, C 6 H 9 NO 2, and arecaine, C1H11N02.
It is by no means the most powerful poison known, for such an alkaloid as pseud-aconitine, which is lethal in dose of about 1/200 of a grain, is some hundreds of times more toxic, but prussic acid is by far the most rapid poison known, a single inhalation of it producing absolutely instantaneous death.
ALKALOID, in chemistry, a term originally applied to any organic base, i.e.
The British pharmacopoeia contains an alcoholic extract of the bean, intended for internal administration; but the alkaloid is now always employed.
But the influence of the alkaloid upon the spinal cord is very marked and characteristic. The reflex functions of the cord are entirely abolished, and it has been experimentally shown that this is due to a direct influence upon the cells in the anterior cornua.
The alkaloid calabarine is, on the other hand, a stimulant of the motor and reflex functions of the cord, so that only the pure alkaloid physostigmine and not any preparation of Calabar bean itself should be used when it is desired to obtain this action.
There is some doubtful evidence of the value of the alkaloid in chorea.
'STRYCHNINE, C21H22N202, an alkaloid discovered in 1818 by Pelletier and Caventou in St Ignatius's beans (Strychnos Ignatii); it also occurs in other species of Strychnos, e.g.
Tieute, and is generally accompanied by another alkaloid brucine, C23H26N204 41I 2 O, which was isolated by Pelletier and Caventou in 1819.
Caffeine (formerly known as theme) is the alkaloid of tea, and is identical with that of coffee, guarana, mate and kola nut.
It is closely allied to theobromine, the alkaloid of cocoa, and also to uric acid.
The alkaloid veratrin has a similar effect upon the.
Contraction of muscle; it enormously delays the return from the contracted state, as also does epinephrin, an alkaloid extracted from the suprarenal gland.
The alkaloid curarin causes motor paralysis by attacking in a selective way this junction of motor nerve cell and striped muscular fibre.
The drug is often replaced in ophthalmology by homatropine - an alkaloid prepared from tropine - which acts similarly to atropine but has the advantage of allowing the ocular changes to pass away in a much shorter time.
MORPHINE, the chief alkaloid of opium, to which the medicinal action of the former is mainly due.
Once acquired the habitué depends on the drug for a comfortable existence, and as the organism becomes quickly tolerant of the alkaloid the original dose no longer suffices.
As a free alkaloid) in the plant, but that it exists in the form of a glucoside, and that by the process of chewing this glucoside is split up by one of the ferments in the saliva into the free alkaloid and sugar.
Under the name of anti-opium cure various remedies containing morphine in the form of powder, or of little pills, have been introduced, as well as the subcutaneous injection of the alkaloid, so that the use of morphine is increasing in China to an alarming extent, and considerable difficulty is experienced in controlling the illicit traffic in it, especially that sent through the post.
Moissan, contains only a trifling amount of morphia, and the effect produced by it is apparently due, not to that alkaloid, but to such decomposition products as pyrrol, acetone and pyridine and hydropyridine bases.
Whiffen of London manufactured practically the world's supply of this alkaloid, but it is now made in the United States and Germany, although the largest amount is still probably made in Great Britain.
For the extraction of codeine, the Persian opium is preferred when Turkey opium is dear, as it contains on the average 22% of that alkaloid, whilst Turkey opium yields only 2-4%.
Thebaine, another alkaloid, was discovered by Thiboumery in 1835; whilst, in 1848, Merck isolated papaverine from commercial narcotine.
Narcotine was shown to be methoxyhydrastine (II.) (hydrastine, the alkaloid of Golden seal, Hydrastis canadensis, was solved by E.
In infants especially opium acts markedly upon the spinal cord, and, just as strychnine is dangerous when given to young children, so opium, because of the strychnine-like alkaloid it contains, should never be administered, under any circumstances or in any dose, to children under one year of age.
The alkaloid thebaine may here be referred to, as it is not used separately in medicine.
A-Propylpiperidine is the alkaloid conine.
Another method consists in mixing the powdered bark with milk of lime, drying the mass slowly with frequent stirring, exhausting the powder with boiling alcohol, removing the excess of alcohol by distillation, adding sufficient dilute sulphuric acid to dissolve the alkaloid and throw down colouring matter and traces of lime, &c., filtering, and allowing the neutralized liquid to deposit crystals.
It is not soluble in fixed oils or in ether, although the pure alkaloid is soluble in both.
Homoquinine is decomposed on treatment with caustic soda into quinine and a new alkaloid, cupreine, in the proportion of 2 to 3.
In consequence of the high price of the alkaloid an attempt was made some years ago by the Government of India to manufacture from cinchona bark a cheap febrifuge which should represent the alkaloids contained in the bark and form a substitute for quinine.
The small quantity of quinine it contains is conditioned by the solubility of the alkaloid, which is precipitated when this tincture is diluted with water.
Calisaya, known as the calisaya of Santa Fe, was strongly recommended for cultivation, because the shoots of felled trees afford bark containing a considerable amount of quinine; C. Pitayensia has been introduced into the Indian plantations on account of yielding the valuable alkaloid quinidine, as well as quinine.
The easiest to cultivate, and experiments have consequently been made in cross-fertilization and grafting with the view of giving vigour of growth to delicate trees yielding a large amount of alkaloid or of increasing the yield in strong-growing trees affording but little quinine.
CONINE, or Coniine (a-propyl piperidine), C 5 H 17 N, an alkaloid occurring, associated with y-coniceine, conhydrine, pseudoconhydrine and methyl conine, in hemlock (Conium maculatum).