By conducting the chlorination in alkaline solution, A.
Acids have practically no action on the metal, but it is soluble in solutions of the alkaline hypochlorites.
The oxides of type RO are soluble in water, the solution possessing a strongly alkaline reaction and rapidly absorbing carbon dioxide on exposure; they are basic in character and dissolve readily in acids with the formation of the corresponding salts.
In alkaline solution, potassium permanganate oxidizes it to inactive tartaric acid and carbon dioxide (0.
Germanium compounds on fusion with alkaline carbonates and sulphur form salts known as thiogermanates.
Soc., 1891, p. 771) by electrolysing solutions of the alkaline bisulphates.
Soaps give an alkaline reaction and have a decided acrid taste; in a pure condition - a state never reached in practice - they have neither smell nor colour.
Its property of absorbing large proportions of water, up to 80%, and yet present the appearance of a hard solid body, makes the material a basis for the hydrated soaps, smooth and marbled, in which water, sulphate of soda, and other alkaline solutions, soluble silicates, fuller's earth, starch, &c. play an important and bulky part.
Group II.: the alkaline earth metals Ca, Sr, Ba, and also Be (GI), Mg, Zn, Cd, divalent; Hg, monovalent and divalent.
By the action of aqueous alkalis, carbon bisulphide is converted into a mixture of an alkaline carbonate and an alkaline thiocarbonate (J.
Amongst the mineral springs worth mentioning are the sulphur springs at Ullersdorf, the saline ones at Luhatschowitz and the alkaline springs at TOplitz.
Ammonia, recognizable by its odour and alkaline reaction, indicates ammoniacal salts or cyanides containing water.
The disulphide, IrS2, is formed when powdered iridium is heated with sulphur and an alkaline carbonate.
Berzelius's investigation of the action of the electric current on salts clearly demonstrated the invaluable assistance that electrolysis could render to the isolator of elements; and the adoption of this method by Sir Humphry Davy for the analysis of the hydrates of the metals of the alkalis and alkaline earths, and the results which he thus achieved, established its potency.
From these results Baeyer concluded that Claus' formula with three para-linkings cannot possibly be correct, for the Q2.5 dihydroterephthalic acid undoubtedly has two ethylene linkages, since it readily takes up two or four atoms of bromine, and is oxidized in warm aqueous solution by alkaline potassium permanganate.
In the second group, we may notice the application of litmus, methyl orange or phenolphthalein in alkalimetry, when the acid or alkaline character of the solution commands the colour which it exhibits; starch paste, which forms a blue compound with free iodine in iodometry; potassium chromate, which forms red silver chromate after all the hydrochloric acid is precipitated in solutions of chlorides; and in the estimation of ferric compounds by potassium bichromate, the indicator, potassium ferricyanide, is placed in drops on a porcelain plate, and the end of the reaction is shown by the absence of a blue coloration when a drop of the test solution is brought into contact with it.
They are precipitated from their alkaline solutions as cobalt sulphide by sulphuretted hydrogen, but this precipitation is prevented by the presence of citric and tartaric acids; similarly the presence of ammonium salts hinders their precipitation by caustic alkalis.
Cobalt salts may be readily detected by the formation of the black sulphide, in alkaline solution, and by the blue colour they produce when fused with borax.
They are drained and in large part enclosed by the North (or Belle Fourche) and South forks of the Cheyenne river (at whose junction a fur-trading post was established about 1830); and are surrounded by semi-arid, alkaline plains lying 3000 to 3500 ft.
Heated with sulphuric acid and with nitric acid it is oxidized to boric acid, whilst on fusion with alkaline carbonates and hydroxides it gives a borate of the alkali metal.
And are alkaline and saline; they are much visited by bathers, especially in summer.
The so-called alkaline earth-metals are the elements beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium and barium.
Lime) were found to be very similar in properties to those of the alkalis, they were called alkaline earths.
The alkaline earths were assumed to be elements until 1807, when Sir H.
If excess of a mineral acid be added to a solution of an alkaline thiogermanate a white precipitate of germanium disulphide, GeS2, is obtained.
It is appreciably soluble in water, and also in solutions of the caustic alkalis and alkaline sulphides.
The mixed solution of poiysulphides and thiosulphate of calcium thus produced is clarified, diluted largely, and then mixed with enough of pure dilute hydrochloric acid to produce a feebly alkaline mixture when sulphur is precipitated.
It is frequently used as a reducing agent: in acid solutions it reduces ferric to ferrous salts, arsenates to arsenites, permanganates to manganous salts, &c., whilst in alkaline solution it converts many organic nitro compounds into the corresponding amino derivatives.
The neutral alkaline salts are soluble in water and show an alkaline reaction, the other neutral salts being either insoluble or difficultly soluble in water.
The prevailing soils are sand and gravel loams, but other varieties are numerous, ranging from rich alluvial beds of extinct lakes, as in parts of Lyon and Esmeralda counties, to the strongly alkaline plains of the southern deserts.
It is obtainable from most natural fatty bodies by the action of alkalis and similar reagents, whereby the fats are decomposed, water being taken up, and glycerin being formed together with the alkaline salt of some particular acid (varying with the nature of the fat).
Heating spirits of hartshorn, he was able to collect "alkaline air" (gaseous ammonia), again because he was using mercury in his pneumatic trough; then, trying what would happen if he passed electric sparks through the gas, he decomposed it into nitrogen and hydrogen, and "having a notion" that mixed with hydrochloric acid gas it would produce a "neutral air," perhaps much the same as common air, he synthesized sal ammoniac. Dephlogisticated air (oxygen) he prepared in August 1774 by heating red oxide of mercury with a burning-glass, and he found that in it a candle burnt with a remarkably vigorous flame and mice lived well.
The citrates are a numerous class of salts, the most soluble of which are those of the alkaline metals; the citrates of the alkaline earth metals are insoluble.
As regards processes of manufacture soaps may be made by the direct combination of fatty acids, separated from oils, with alkaline solutions.
On settling the product forms three layers: the uppermost is a thin crust of soap which is worked up again in the pan; the second is the desired soap; next there is a dark-coloured weak soap termed nigre, which, because it contains some soap and alkali is saved for future use; underneath these is a solution of alkaline salts with a little free alkali.
This property is usually obtained by mixing soft and hard soaps, or, more rarely, by adding gum tragacanth to a hard soap. In the textile trades the wool scourer employs a neutral olive-oil soap, or, on account of its cheapness, a neutral curd or curd mottled brand; the cotton cleanser, on the other hand, uses an alkaline soap, but for cleaning printed cottons a neutral olive-oil curd soap is used, for, in this case, free alkali and resin are objectionable; olive-oil soap, free from caustic alkali, but often with sodium carbonate, is also used in cleansing silk fibres, although hard soaps free from resin are frequently employed for their cheapness.
It is also prepared by digesting precipitated mercuric sulphide with an alkaline sulphide fox some hours; it is said that Chinese vermilion owes its superiority to being made in this way.
Torray's observations on nitromalonic aldehyde, N02 CH(CHO)2,formed by acting on mucobromic acid, probably CHO CBr:CBr:000H, with alkaline nitrites; this substance condenses with acetone to give p-nitrophenol, and forms [I.3.5]-trinitrobenzene when its sodium salt is decomposed with an acid.
This salt may be used for the separation of cobalt and nickel, since the latter metal does not form a similar double nitrite, but it is necessary that the alkaline earth metals should be absent, for in their presence nickel forms complex nitrites containing the alkaline earth metal and the alkali metal.
On oxidation with chromic or nitric acids, or potassium permanganate, it yields nicotinic acid or (3-pyridine carboxylic acid, C 5 H 4 N CO 2 H; alkaline potassium ferricyanide gives nicotyrine, C10H10N2, and hydrogen peroxide oxynicotine, C10H14N20.
They are formed by the action of nitrous fumes on ammoniacal solutions of cobaltous salts, or purpureo-salts, or by the mutual reaction of chlorpurpureosalts and alkaline nitrites.
(a) The substance may fuse and be absorbed by the charcoal; this indicates more particularly the alkaline metals.
Lye still continues to be poured in till a sample tastes distinctly alkaline - a test which indicates that the whole of the fatty acids have been taken up by and combined with the alkali.
Iodine in alkaline solution converts pyrrol into iodol (tetra-iodopyrrol), crystallizing in yellowishbrown needles, which decompose on heating.
Some of them, like the Kreuzbrunnen and the Ferdinandsbrunnen, contain alkaline-saline waters which resemble those of Carlsbad, except that they are cold and contain nearly twice the quantity of purgative salts.
Molybdenum trisulphide, MoS3, is obtained by saturating a solution of an alkaline molybdate with sulphuretted hydrogen and adding a mineral acid.
The term oxyloiyte is open to the obiection that some peaty waters are alkaline, id not acidic as the term implies.
Alkaline carbonates give precipitates of basic carbonates, the formation of which is also retarded by the presence of ammonium salts.
1 The metals of the alkaline-earths were somewhat neglected; we find Georg Agricola considering gypsum (calcium sulphate) as a compound of lime, while calcium nitrate and chloride became known at about the beginning of the 17th century.
Normal cadmium carbonates are unknown, a white precipitate of variable composition being obtained on the addition of solutions of the alkaline carbonates to soluble cadmium salts.
The sap in these active tissues is alkaline, which has been interpreted as being in accordance with not appear to be concerned with digestion so directly as the others is pectase, which forms vegetable jelly from pectic substances occurring in the cell-wall.
Others, like the Ambrosiusbrunnen and the Karolinenbrunnen, are among the strongest iron waters in the world, while the Rudolfsbrunnen is an earthy-alkaline spring.
Klaproth in 1799, is obtained when pure carbon (graphite or charcoal) is oxidized by alkaline permanganate, or when carbon forms the positive pole in an electrolytic cell (Ber., 1883, 16, p. 1209).
Zinc dust and hydrochloric acid reduce pyrrol to pyrrolin (dihydropyrrol), C 4 H 6 NH, a liquid which boils at 90° C. (748 mm.); it is soluble in water and has strongly basic properties and an alkaline reaction.
If it possesses an alkaline or acid reaction, it must be tested in the first case for ammonia, and in the second case for a volatile acid, such as sulphuric, nitric, hydrochloric, &c.