They readily decompose on heating, and are easily hydrolysed by alkalies; they possess a somewhat more acid character than.
Chlorophyll is not soluble in water, nor in acids or alkalies without decomposition.
Elements received symbols composed of circles, arcs of circles, and lines, while certain class symbols, such as1W for metals, - - foracids, for alkalies, for salts, U for calces, &c., were used.
Albumins (as classified above) are soluble in water, dilute acids and alkalies, and in saturated neutral salt solutions; they are coagulated by heat.
The globulins are insoluble in water and in dilute acids, but soluble in alkalies and in neutral salt solutions; these solutions are coagulated on boiling.
The nucleo-albumins or phospho-globulins are insoluble in water and acids, but soluble in alkalies, and have an acid reaction.
The decomposition products are generally the same as with the general albumin; it gives the biuret reaction; forms salts with acids and alkalies, but is essentially acid in nature.
Fibroin is insoluble in water, acids and alkalies; silk-glue resembles gelatin in its solubility, but it is less readily gelatinized.
Pechmann, Ber., 1887, 20, 2905), and by the action of dilute alkalies on w-dibromacetophenone (C. Engler, Ber., 1887, 20, 2202): C6HS000HBr2 -13KH0 = 2KBr+ H 2 O + C6H5 [[Choh C02k]].
They do not polymerize, and in the presence of caustic alkalies do not resinify, but oxidize to alcohols and acids (see Benzaldehyde for Cannizzaro's reaction).
The salts are obtained by the action of alkalies on the acid.
From whatever cause the tissues become disorganized and undergo fatty degeneration, the fatty acids may become liberated and combine with the alkalies to form potash and soda soaps.
These nitrates generally occur as efflorescences caused by the oxidation of nitrogenous matter in the presence of the alkalies and alkaline earths.
The actual formation of this salt is not quite clear; but it is certainly conditioned by the simultaneous contact of decaying nitrogenous matter, alkalies, air and moisture.
The demand for saltpetre as an ingredient of gunpowder led to the formation of saltpetre plantations or nitriaries, which at one time were common in France, Germany, and other countries; the natural conditions were simulated by exposing heaps of decaying organic matter mixed with alkalies (lime, &c.) to atmospheric action.
With benzene sulphochloride in the presence of alkali, the primary amines yield compounds of the type C 6 H 5 S0 2 NHR, soluble in alkalies, whilst the secondary amines yield compounds of the type C 6 H 5 S0 2 NR 2, insoluble in alkalies (0.
Of the general characters of acids we may here notice that they dissolve alkaline substances, certain metals, &c., neutralize alkalies and redden many blue and violet vegetable colouring matters.
39), although it is not known whether the term is identical with the more modern sal-ammoniac. In the form of sal-ammoniac, ammonia was known, however, to the alchemists as early as the 13th century, being mentioned by Albertus Magnus, whilst in the 15th century Basil Valentine showed that ammonia could be obtained by the action of alkalies on sal-ammoniac. At a later period when sal-ammoniac was obtained by distilling the hoofs and horns of oxen, and neutralizing the resulting carbonate with hydrochloric acid, the name spirits of hartshorn was applied to ammonia.
Proctor in 1877 directed attention to the composition of the slag resulting from the burning of esparto, which they found to be strikingly similar to that of average medical bottle glass, the latter yielding on analysis 66.3% of silica and 25.1% of alkalies and alkaline.
After absorption into the blood, the acetates are oxidized to carbonates, and therefore are remote alkalies, and are administered whenever it is desired to increase the alkalinity of the blood or to reduce the acidity of the urine, without exerting the disturbing influence of alkalies upon the digestive tract.
Bamberger (Ber., 1898, 31, p. 455) has shown that the nitro-alkyl derivatives behave as though they possess the constitution of hydrazones, for on heating with dilute alkalies they split more or less readily into an alkaline nitrite and an acid hydrazide: C 6 H 5 NH N: C(N02)CH3+NaOH=NaN02+C6H5NH NH CO CH3.
In his memoir of 1785 he writes: "As far as the experiments hitherto published extend, we scarcely know more of the phlogisticated part of our atmosphere than that it is not diminished by lime-water, caustic alkalies, or nitrous air; that it is unfit to support fire or maintain life in animals; and that its specific gravity is not much less than that of common air; so that, though the nitrous acid, by being united to phlogiston, is converted into air possessed of these properties, and consequently, though it was reasonable to suppose, that part at least of the phlogisticated air of the atmosphere consists of this acid united to phlogiston, yet it may fairly be doubted whether the whole is of this kind, or whether there are not in reality many different substances confounded together by us under the name of phlogisticated air.
By adding certain alkalies to the other ingredients used in the preparation of these pigments, the colour becomes indigoblue, in which case it is the litmus of the Dutch manufacturers.
They hydrolyse readily when boiled with solutions of caustic alkalies or mineral acids, yielding the constituent acid and alcohol.
They are monacid bases, which are not very stable; they readily take up the elements of water (when boiled with acids or alkalies), yielding amides and ammonia.
It may be artificially prepared by the hydrolysis of isopropylcyanide with alkalies, by the oxidation of isopropyl alcohol with potassium bichromate and sulphuric acid (I.
The simple nature of the alkalies Lavoisier considered so doubtful that he did not class them as elements, which he conceived as substances which could not be further decomposed by any known process of analysis - les molecules simples et indivisibles qui composent les corps.
The acid when fused with caustic alkalies yields oxalic acid.