Commerce.The value of the external trade of the French possessions, exclusive of Algeria and Tunisia, increased in the ten years 1896-1905 from 18,784,060 to 34,957,479.
In the last-named year the commerce of Algeria amounted to 24,506,020 and that of Tunisia to 5,969,248, making a grand total for French colonial trade in 1905 of 65,432,746 The figures were made up as follows:
Over three-fourths of the trade of Algeria and Tunisia is with France and other French possessions.
Thus in 1857 he went to Peru in order to determine the magnetic equator; in1861-1862and 1864, he studied telluric absorption in the solar spectrum in Italy and Switzerland; in 1867 he carried out optical and magnetic experiments at the Azores; he successfully observed both transits of Venus, that of 1874 in Japan, that of 1882 at Oran in Algeria; and he took part in a long series of solar eclipse-expeditions, e.g.
It may be added that fossil remains of the African elephant have been obtained from Spain, Sicily, Algeria and Egypt, in strata of the Pleistocene age.
The climate becomes more continental in type from west to east...
Communication between Algeria and Lake Chad by way of the Sahara was opened, after repeated failures, by the French explorer F.
239,178 The Basques of Basses-PyrnCes go in considerable 442,777 numbers to the Argentine Republic, the inhabitants of 333,621 Basses Alpes to Mexico and the United States, and 429,812 there are important French colonies in Algeria and 315,199 Tunisia.
In Algeria the Mahommedan religion received similar recognition.
Algeria 7,872 9,434 11,652
Shipping has been fostered by paying bounties for vessels constructed in France and sailing under the French flag, and by reserving the coasting trade, traffic between France and Algeria, &c., to French vessels.
In 1906 the peace strength of the army in France was estimated at 532,593 officers and men; in Algeria 54,580; in Tunis 20,320; total 607,493.
Besides the important harbours already referred to, the French fleet has naval bases at Oran in Algeria, Bizerta in Tunisia, Saigon in Cochin China and Hongaj in Tongking, DiegoSuarez in Madagascar, Dakar in Senegal, Fort de France in Martinique, Nouma in New Caledonia.
A partial exception to this rule is found in Algeria, where all laws in force in France before the conquest of the country are also (in theory, not in practice) in force in Algeria.
Each colony and protectorate, including Algeria, has a separate budget.
~Colonial Finance.The cost of the extra-European possessions, other than Algeria and Tunisia, to the state is shown in the expenses of the colonial ministry.
The colonial budgets totalled in 1907 some 16,760,000, being divisible into six categories: Algeria 4,120,000; Tunisia 3,640,000; Indo-China3 about 5,000,ooo; West Africa 1,600,000; Madagascar 960,000; all other colonies combined 1,440,000.
The authorized colonial loans, omitting Algeria and Tunisia, during the period 1884f 904 amounted to 19,200,000, the sums paid for interest and sinking funds on loans varying from 600,000 to 800,000 a year.
For example, in southern Algeria, a region of steppes is situated on a flat plateau, about 3000 ft.
At Ghardaia, in south-eastern Algeria, the mean annual rainfall, from 1887 to I892, was about 43/4 in.
At Beni Ounif and Colomb Bchar, in south-western Algeria, I was informed, in March 1910, that there had been no rain for about three years.
He became first a postmaster near Lyons, and in 1841 was appointed, through the influence of some of his friends who had risen to posts of power, member of a scientific commission on Algeria, which led him to engage in researches concerning North Africa and colonization in general.
Others of the more important totals are: France 95,000 (besides Algeria 63,000 and Tunis 62,000); Italy 52,000; Persia 49,000; Egypt 39,000; Bulgaria 36,000; Argentine Republic 30,000; Tripoli 19,000; Turkestan and Afghanistan 14,000; Switzerland and Belgium each 12,000; Mexico 90oO; Greece 8000; Servia 6000; Sweden and Cuba each 4000; Denmark 3500; Brazil and Abyssinia (Falashas) each 3000; Spain and Portugal 2500; China and Japan 2000.
- Spain, Italy, Albania ., Croatia, Hungary, Hesse, Hanover, Transcaspia, Algeria, Florida, Alabama, California, Mexico, Peru, Victoria, New Zealand.
France, Switzerland, Spain, Italy, Sicily, Greece, Rumania, Turkey-in-Europe, Styria, Slavonia, Hungary, Transylvania, Galicia, Lower Austria, Wurttemberg, Brandenberg, West Prussia, Crimea, Kuban, Terek, Kutais, Tiflis, Elizabetpol, Siberia, Transcaspia, Mesopotamia, Persia, Assam, Burma, Anam, Japan, Philippine Islands, Borneo, Sumatra, Java, Algeria, Egypt, British Columbia, Alaska, Washington, California, Colorado, Texas, Louisiana, Barbados, Trinidad, Venezuela, Peru, South Australia, Victoria, New Zealand.
He travelled a great deal in Europe, Egypt, Palestine, Russia, Algeria and America, and between 1853 and 1863 was largely occupied with researches into the history and methods of marine propulsion.
Algeria has been in course of survey since 1868, Tunis since 1878, and the results have been published on scales of I :50,000 and 1:250,000.
They extend from Cape Nun on the west to the Gulf of Gabes on the east, a distance of some i 50o m., traversing Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia.
The maritime Atlas and the inner ranges in Algeria and Tunisia are then treated under the heading Eastern Ranges.
It has an average height of over 1 i,000 ft., whereas the loftiest peaks in Algeria do not exceed 8000 ft., and the highest in Tunisia are under 6000 ft.
The lower portion of the Moroccan Atlas (sometimes called the Middle Atlas), extending north - east and east from an undefined point to the north of the Great Atlas to near the frontier of Algeria, is crossed by the pass from Fez to Tafilalt.
The eastern division of the Atlas, which forms the backbone of Algeria and Tunisia, is adequately known with the exception of the small portion in Morocco forming the province of Er-Rif.
In Algeria the Maritime Atlas has five chief ranges, several mountains rising over 5000 ft.
It was in these coast mountains of Algeria that the Romans quarried the celebrated Numidian marbles.
(1) A town and commune on the coast of Algeria, in the department of Algiers, 30 m.
(2) Another town which in Roman times was called Tipasa is in the department of Constantine, Algeria, 55 m.
From 1881 to 1884 his activity in Tunisia so raised the prestige of France that it drew from Gambetta the celebrated declaration, L'Anticldricalisme n'est pas un article d'exportation, and led to the e .?mption of Algeria from the application of the decrees concerning the religious orders.
People in a small town in Alabama, a small city in Algeria, and a large city in Argentina all desire different forms of governments with different services.
But in 1908, owing to the prevailing want of trained soldiers in France, it was proposed to set free the white troops in Algeria by applying the principles of universal service to the natives, as in Tunis.
The only countries in which there is a considerable white population are Algeria, Tunisia and New Caledonia.
The oversight of all the colonies and protectorates save Algeria and Tunisia is confided to a minister of the colonies (law of March 20, 1894)1 whose powers correspond to those exercised in France by the minister of the interior.
The similar expenses of Algeria borne by the state are not separately shown, but are estimated at 2,000,000.
The Islands), capital and largest city of Algeria, North Africa, seat of the governorgeneral, of a court of appeal, and of an archbishop, and station of the French XIX.
In the museum are some of the ancient sculptures and mosaics discovered in Algeria, together with medals and Algerian money.
On the 4th of July in that year a French army under General de Bourmont attacked the city, which capitulated on the following day.
It is widely distributed in the United States, and occurs in Mexico and Brazil; it is found in Tunisia and Algeria, in the Altai Mountains and India, and in New South Wales, Queensland, and in Tasmania.
Roman Africa has been the subject of innumerable historical and archaeological researches, especially since the conquest of Algeria and Tunisia by the French.