And not for them only; for in the school of York, founded by his pupil Archbishop Ecgberht, was trained Alcuin (Ealhwine) the initiator under Charles the Great of the Frankish schools, which did so much for learning on the continent.
The building suffered from fire in 741, and, after it had been repaired by Archbishop Albert, was described by Alcuin as "a most magnificent basilica."
In the time of Archbishop Egbert (732-766) and of Alcuin, at first a scholar and afterwards master of the cloister school, York became one of the most celebrated places of education in Europe.
His father, Wilgils, an Angle or, as Alcuin styles him, a Saxon, of Northumbria, withdrew from the world and constructed for himself a little oratory dedicated to St Andrew.
The king and nobles of the district endowed him with estates till he was at last able to build a church, over which Alcuin afterwards ruled.
This would fix the date of his death in 738; and, as Alcuin tells us he was eighty-one years old when he died, it may be inferred that he was born in 657 - a theory on which all the dates given above are based, though it must be added that they are substantially confirmed by the incidental notices of Bede.
In this synod Alcuin of York took part.
A friendly letter from Alcuin, and a controversial pamphlet, to which Felix replied, were followed by the sending of several commissions of clergy to Spain to endeavour to put down the heresy.
There, after six days' disputing with Alcuin, he again recanted his heresy.
In the scholastic discussions of the 12th century the question came to the front again, for the doctrine as framed by Alcuin was not universally accepted.
In this book he tries to prove that Bernard (Sapiens), Alcuin, Boniface and Joannes Scotus Erigena were all Scots, and even Boadicea becomes a Scottish author.
He endeavoured to attract to his court the best scholars of Britain and Ireland, and by imperial decree (787) commanded the establishment of schools in connexion with every abbey in his realms. Peter of Pisa and Alcuin of York were his advisers, and under their care the opposition long supposed to exist between godliness and secular learning speedily disappeared.
After the death of Alcuin he became the foremost councillor to the king on theological matters: it was he who made, on Charlemagne's request, a collection of the opinions of the fathers on the much-disputed point of the procession of the Holy Ghost.
"He was perhaps the most learned and able theologian after Alcuin, as well versed in Greek theology as he was familiar with Augustinianism, a comprehensive genius, who felt the liveliest desire to harmonize theory and practice, and at the same time give due weight to tradition" (Harnack).
The poem is based, not directly on the New Testament, but on the pseudo-Tatian's harmony of the Gospels, and it shows acquaintance with the commentaries of Alcuin, Banda and Hrabanus Maurus.
The last book (xvii.) treats of theology or (as we should now say) mythology, and winds up with an account of the Holy Scriptures and of the Fathers, from Ignatius and Dionysius the Areopagite to Jerome and Gregory the Great, and even of later writers from 'Isidore and Bede, through Alcuin, Lanfranc and Anselm, down to Bernard of Clairvaux and the brethren of St Victor.
He delighted in the society of scholars - Alcuin, Angilbert, Paul the Lombard, Peter of Pisa and others, and in this company the trappings of rank were laid aside and the emperor was known simply as David.
Under his patronage Alcuin organized the school of the palace, where the royal children were taught in the company of others, and founded a school at Tours which became the model for many other establishments.
Alcuin attributes the authorship of the Latin form - the Gloria in Excelsis - to St Hilary of Poitiers (died 367).
Though thus attributed here to Alcuin, who is known to have revised the Lectionary or Comes Hieronymi, the compilation 176 homilies arranged in order for all the Sundays and festivals of the ecclesiastical year; and probably was completed before the year 780.
Einhard was a man of very short stature, a feature on which Alcuin wrote an epigram.
Reaping the benefits of the revival of learning brought about by Charlemagne, he was on intimate terms with Alcuin, was well versed in Latin literature, and knew some Greek.
Priscian was quoted by several writers in Britain of the 8th century - Aldhelm, Bede, Alcuin - and was abridged or largely used in the next century by Hrabanus Maurus of Fulda and Servatus Lupus of Ferrieres.
Of these the earliest of note were undertaken in France in the 9th century by Alcuin in 801, and almost at the same time by Theodulf, bishop of Orleans (787-821).
In 797 Charlemagne commissioned Alcuin to prepare an emended text of the Vulgate; copies of this text were multiplied, not always accurately, in the famous writingschools at Tours.
In England, though the ecclesiastical organization came from Rome and was directed by Romans, we find no trace of such an office or order until the time of Ecgbert of York (767), the friend of Alcuin and therefore subject to Gallican influence.
In the 9th Alcuin sends to Charles the Great for a copy of the earlier books (Epp. 103, Jaffe); and Dicuil gathers extracts from the pages of Pliny for his own Mensura orbis terrae (c. 825).
As confessor to Queen Adosinda, wife of King Silo of Oviedo (774-783), and as the master of Alcuin and Etherius of Osma, Beatus exercised wide influence.
When the abbess Ethelburga of Fladbury (Worcestershire) found her projected pilgrimage impracticable, Alcuin wrote to her, saying that it was no great loss, and that God had better designs for her: "Expend the sum thou hast gathered for the journey on the support of the poor; and if thou givest as thou canst, thou shalt reap as thou wilt"(Ep. 300).
Among the teachers here were Alcuin, Hrabanus Maurus, who was abbot from 822 to 842, and Walaf rid Strabo.
He caused a scheme of humanistic education to be formulated, and gave employment at his court to rhetoricians, of whom Alcuin was the most considerable.
Already in the 8th century Prudentius, bishop of Troyes, had in a Breviarium Psalterii made an abridgment of the Psalter for the laity, giving a few psalms for each day, and Alcuin had rendered a similar service by including a prayer for each day and some other prayers, but no lessons or homilies.
By Alcuin (1751; 2nd ed., Bristol, 1829), has nothing to do with this or with any Hebrew original, but is a mere fabrication by the printer, Jacob Ilive, who put it forward as the book " mentioned in Holy Scripture."
ALCUIN (ALCHUINE), a celebrated ecclesiastic and man of learning in the 8th century, who liked to be called by the Latin name of Albinus, and at the Academy of the palace took the surname of Flaccus, was born at Eboracum (York) in 735.
When !Elbert was appointed archbishop of York in 766, Alcuin succeeded him in the headship of the episcopal school.
From 781 to 790 Alcuin was his sovereign's principal helper in this enterprise.
He had as pupils the king of the Franks, the members of his family and the young clerics attached to the palace chapel; he was the life and soul of the Academy of the palace, and we have still, in the Dialogue of Pepin (son of Charlemagne) and Alcuin, a sample of the intellectual exercises in which they indulged.
In 790 Alcuin returned to his own country, to which he had always been greatly attached, and st syed there some time; but Charlemagne needed him to combat the Adoptianist heresy, which was at that time making great progress in the marches of Spain.
At the council of Frankfort in 794 Alcuin upheld the orthodox doctrine, and obtained the condemnation of the heresiarch Felix of Urgel.
Alcuin is the most prominent figure of the Carolingian Renaissance, in which have been distinguished three main periods: in the first of these, up to the` arrival of Alcuin at the court, the Italians occupy the chief place; in the second, Alcuin and the Anglo-Saxons are dominant; in the third, which begins in 804, the influence of the Goth Theodulf is preponderant.
Alcuin transmitted to the ignorant Franks the knowledge of Latin culture which had existed in England since the time of Bede.
Monnier, Alcuin et Charlemagne (Paris, 1863); K.
Gaskoin, Alcuin: His Life and his Work (London, 1903).
Alcuin; Wattenbach, Deutschlands Geschichtsquellen (Stuttgart and Berlin, 1904), i.
But a powerful counterpoise to this tendency was continually maintained by the fervid inwardness of Augustine, transmitted through Gregory the Great, Isidore of Seville, Alcuin, Hrabanus Maurus, and other writers of the philosophically barren period between the destruction of the Western empire and the rise of Scholasticism.
The anagram of Calvin is Alcuin, and this in its Latinized form Alcuinus appears in two editions of his Institutio as that of the author (Audin, Vie de Calvin, i.
Roger, L'Enseignement des lettres classiques d'Ausone d Alcuin (Paris, 1905); J.
This still barely civilized German literally went to school to the English Alcuin and to Peter of Pisa, who, between two campaigns, taught him history, writing, grammar and astronomy, satisfying also his interest in sacred music, literature (religious literature especially),and the traditions of Rome and Constantinople.
9 f.; Alcuin, Vita Willebrordi; I.