Alberta thus gives rise to the two great rivers Saskatchewan and Mackenzie.
In extent are situated in Alberta, two of more considerable size are found.
As Alberta extends for 750 m.
==Fauna== The three climatic regions of Alberta have naturally a varying fauna.
Northern Alberta and the region farther north is the nesting-ground of the migratory birds.
==Flora== In central and northern Alberta the opening spring brings in the prairie anemone, the avens and other early flowers.
The southern part of Alberta is covered by a short grass, very nutritive, but drying up in the middle of summer until the whole prairie is brown and unattractive.
- By the census of 1906 the population of Alberta was found to be 185,412.
It has grown from 73,022 in 1901 (the area of Alberta being then slightly different).
The Indians of central Alberta are chiefly plain Crees, a tribe of Algonquin stock.
In southern Alberta are several thousands of Indians on reserves south and west of Calgary, consisting of the Blackfoots of Algonquin stock, Sarcees, Piegans and a few Assiniboins.
The chief cities and towns of Alberta are Edmonton (11,167), Calgary (11,967), Medicine Hat (3020), Lethbridge (2948) and Strathcona (2927).
In central Alberta coarse grains - oats and barley - and some wheat are grown, in conjunction with mixed farming.
While washing out the sands of the North Saskatchewan for gold is still somewhat resorted to, the only real mining in Alberta is that for coal.
The usual coal deposits of Alberta are of bituminous or semi-bituminous coal.
These are largely worked at Lethbridge in southern Alberta and Edmonton in the centre of the province.
Administration, &c. - The local government of Alberta is carried on by a provincial organization resembling that of the other Canadian provinces.
Alberta has a system of municipal government similar to that of the other provinces.
The following are the leading denominations in Alberta:- 1901.
2,722 The Mormons of Alberta are in the most southerly part of the province, and are a colony from the Mormon settlements in Utah, U.S. On coming to Canada they were given lands by the Dominion of Canada.
The organization adopted in Utah among the Mormons is found also in Alberta, but the Canadian Mormons profess to have received a later revelation condemning polygamy.
- The present province of Alberta as far north as the height of land (53° N.) was from the time of the incorporation of the Hudson's Bay Company (1670) a part of Rupert's Land.
The North-West Company of Montreal occupied the northern part of Alberta district before the Hudson's Bay Company succeeded in coming from Hudson Bay to take possession of it.
As part of the North-West Territories the district of Alberta was organized in 1875.
At length in 1905 the district of Alberta was enlarged and the present province formed by the Dominion parliament.
A tree peculiar to this zone is the Alberta magna.
By the Canadian provinces of British Columbia, Alberta and Assiniboia; E.
Of the nine provinces of Canada only two have no coast line on salt water, the western prairie provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan; but Manitoba and Ontario have a seaboard only on Hudson Bay and its southern extension James Bay respectively, and there is no probability that the shallow harbours of the latter bay will ever be of much importance for shipping, though Churchill Harbour on the west side of Hudson Bay may become an important grain port.
The northern part of Alberta and Saskatchewan and much of northern British Columbia are drained through the Athabasca and Peace rivers, first north-eastwards towards Athabasca Lake, then north through Slave river to Great Slave Lake, and finally north-west through Mackenzie river to the Arctic Ocean.
Though the region is spoken of as a plain there are really great differences of level between the highest parts in south-western Alberta, 4500 ft.
Wide covers towards the south almost all of British Columbia and a strip of Alberta east of the watershed, and towards the north forms the whole of the Yukon Territory.
Near the height of land between British Columbia and Alberta there are many peaks which rise from 10,000 to 12,000 ft.
The outer ranges in Alberta have usually the form of tilted blocks with a steep cliff towards the north-east and a gentler slope, corresponding to the dip of the beds, towards the south-west.
The precipitation in southern Saskatchewan and Alberta is much more variable than farther east and north, so that in some seasons crops have been a failure through drought, but large areas are now being brought under irrigation to avoid such losses.
In southern Alberta, however, the winter cold is often interrupted by chinooks, westerly winds which have lost their moisture by crossing the mountains and become warmed by plunging down to the plains, where they blow strongly, licking up the snow and raising the temperature, sometimes in a few hours, from 20 to 40° F.
Leaving out the maritime provinces, southern Ontario, southern Alberta and the Pacific coast region on the one hand, and the Arctic north, particularly near Hudson Bay, on the other, Canada has snowy and severe winters, a very short spring with a sudden rise of temperature, short warm summers, and a delightful autumn with its " Indian summer."
The larger animals of Canada are the musk ox and the caribou of the barren lands, both having their habitat in the far north; the caribou of the woods, found in all the provinces except in Price Edward Island; the moose, with an equally wide range in the wooded country; the Virginia deer, in one or other of its varietal forms, common to all the southern parts; the black-tailed deer or mule deer and allied forms, on the western edge of the plains and in British Columbia; the pronghorn antelope on the plains, and a small remnant of the once plentiful bison found in northern Alberta and Mackenzie, now called " wood buffalo."
Their population in 1906 was Manitoba, 360,000; Saskatchewan, 257,000; Alberta, 184,000.
West of the province of Ontario, then inaccurately defined, the provinces of Manitoba and British Columbia were the only organized divisions of the western territory, but in 1882 the provisional districts of Assiniboia, Athabasca, Alberta and Saskatchewan were formed, leaving the remainder of the north-west as unorganized territories, a certain portion of the north-east, called Keewatin, having previously been placed under the lieutenant-governor of Manitoba.
In 1905 these four districts were formed into the two provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan, and Keewatin was placed directly under the federal government.
M.; in Nova Scotia it is 22.3; New Brunswick, 11.8; Ontario, 9.9; Manitoba, 4.9; Quebec, 4.8; Saskatchewan, 1 oi; Alberta, o 72; British Columbia, o 4; the Dominion, 1 8.
Alberta and Saskatchewan, particularly the ranching districts, are chiefly peopled by English immigrants, though since 1900 there has also been a large influx from the United States.
The lumber trade of British Columbia has suffered from lack of an adequate market, but is increasing with the greater demand from the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan.
In Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, the so-called railway belt of British Columbia and the territories, these crown lands are chiefly owned by the federal parliament; in the other provinces, by the local legislatures.
Of these the most extensive are the Rocky Mountains Park at Banff, Alberta, owned by the Dominion government, and the "Algonquin National Park," north-east of Lake Simcoe, the property of Ontario.
In the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan, formed in 1905, certain educational privileges (though not amounting to a separate school system) were granted to the Roman Catholics.
The three " North-West Provinces " (Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta) have a total area of 369,869,898 acres, of which 12,853,120 acres are water.
Horse and cattle ranching is practised in Alberta, where the milder winters allow of the outdoor wintering of live stock to a greater degree than is possible in the colder parts of Canada.
Great progress has been made in the development of the railway systems of Canada, and the new transcontinental line from the Atlantic to the Pacific, passing through Saskatchewan via Saskatoon, and Alberta via Edmonton, renders possible of settlement large areas of fertile wheat-growing soil.
Of this total wheat acreage, 2,721,079 acres were in Manitoba, 2,117,484 acres in Saskatchewan, and 223,930 acres in Alberta, with average yields per acre at the rates of 20.02 bushels in Manitoba, 23.70 in Saskatchewan and 26.49 in Alberta.
In these provinces spring wheat is almost universally sown, except in Alberta where fall or winter wheat is also sown to a considerable extent.
The cultivation of sugar beets for the manufacture of sugar has been established in Ontario and in southern Alberta, where in 1906 an acreage under this crop of 3344 yielded 27,211 tons, an average of 8.13 tons per acre.
One is situated at Lethbridge, southern Alberta, where problems will be investigated concerning agriculture upon irrigated land and dry farming under conditions of a scanty rainfall.
The other is at Lacombe, northern Alberta, about 70 m.
From Oil Creek, development spread first over the eastern United States and then became general, subsequently embracing Canada (1862), recently discovered fields being those of Illinois, Alberta and California (44,854,737 barrels in 1908).
Holland, France, Switzerland, Spain, Italy, Sicily, Greece, Hungary, Silesia, Moravia, Westphalia, Brunswick, Hanover, Schleswig-Holstein, (German) Silesia, Poland, Kutais, Uralsk, Turkestan, Armenia, Syria, Arabia, Persia, Tunis, Egypt, West Africa, British Columbia, Alberta, Assiniboia, Athabasca, Manitoba, New Jersey, South Dakota, Washington, Montana, Oklahoma, Utah, Wyoming, Colorado, California, New Mexico, Arkansas, Texas, Louisiana, Mexico, Hayti, Trinidad, Colombia, Argentina [?], New Zealand.
ALBERTA, a province of western Canada, established in 1905.
The Rocky Mountains, which give its charm to Alberta, are ascended by a gradual approach from the east, but are exceedingly abrupt on their transalpine slope in British Columbia.
The most noted of the Alberta passes are (I) the Crow's Nest Pass, near the southern boundary line, through which a branch of the Canadian Pacific railway runs; (2) the Kicking Horse Pass, through which the main line of the Canadian Pacific railway is built; 40 m.
With the exception of the southern section, the province of Alberta may be said to be well watered.
Rising from numerous valleys on the Alberta declivity of the Rocky Mountains between the international boundary line and 52° N.
Begins the height of land running north-easterly, north of which all the waters of Alberta flow toward the Arctic Sea.
In northern Alberta, on the northern slope, gathering its tributaries from rills in the Rocky Mountains, the river Athabasca runs north and empties into Lake Athabasca near 58° N.
The right of having separate schools has been extended to the newly constituted provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan.
The chief features of his administration were the fiscal preference of 333% in favour of goods imported into Canada from Great Britain, the despatch of Canadian contingents to South Africa during the Boer war, the contract with the Grand Trunk railway for the construction of a second transcontinental road from ocean to ocean, the assumption by Canada of the imperial fortresses at Halifax and Esquimault, the appointment of a federal railway commission with power to regulate freight charges, express rates and telephone rates, and the relations between competing companies, the reduction of the postal rate to Great Britain from 5 cents to 2 cents and of the domestic rate from 3 cents to 2 cents, a substantial contribution to the Pacific cable, a practical and courageous policy of settlement and development in the Western territories, the division of the North-West territories into the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan and the enactment of the legislation necessary to give them provincial status, and finally (1910), a tariff arrangement with the United States, which, if not all that Canada might claim in the way of reciprocity, showed how entirely the course of events had changed the balance of commercial interests in North America.