Are Karlo, East Kvarken, the Aland archipelago, Dagd, and Osel or Oesel in the Baltic Sea; Novaya Zemlya, with Kolguyev and Vaigach, in the Barents Sea; the Solovetski Islands in the White Sea; the New Siberian archipelago, Wrangel Land and Bear Islands, off the Siberian coast; the Commander Islands off Kamchatka; the Shantar Islands and the N.
He desired peace with Russia first of all, and at the congress of Aland even obtained relatively favourable terms, only to have them rejected by his obstinately optimistic master.
ALAND ISLANDS, an archipelago at the entrance to the Gulf of Bothnia, about 25 m.
The majority of these occupy the island of Aland, upon which is situated the town of Mariehamn with a population of 1171.
The Aland Islands occupy a position of the greatest strategic importance, commanding as they do both the entrance to the port of Stockholm and the approaches to the Gulf of Bothnia, through which the greater part of the trade of Sweden is carried on.
By the "Aland Convention," concluded between Great Britain, France and Russia on the 30th of March 1856, it was stipulated that "the Aland Islands shall not be fortified, and that no military or naval establishments shall be maintained or created on them."
The question of the Aland Islands created some discussion in 1907 and 1908 in connexion with the new North Sea agreements, and undoubtedly Russia considered the convention of 1856 as rather humiliating.
Finland includes in the south-west the Aland archipelago - its frontier approaching within .8 m.
It is to this series that the well-known Rapakivi granite of Aland, Nystad and Viborg belongs.
In 1808, under Gustavus IV., peace was again broken between the two countries, and the war ended by the cession in 1809 of the whole of Finland and the Aland Islands to Russia.
Osterman, together with General Bruce, represented Russia at the Aland peace congress of 1718.
South of the central lowlands the so-called Smaland highlands extend over the old province of Smaland in the south-east, and lie roughly south of Lake Vetter and of Gothenburg, S m aland where.
Farther north, a narrow sound (Glands Haf) intervening on the Swedish side, the vast Aland archipelago, belonging to Russia, extends across to the Finnish coast.
19, 1809) broke the spirit of the Swedish army; and peace was obtained by the sacrifice of Finland, the Aland islands, " the fore-posts of Stockholm," as Napoleon rightly described them, and Vesterbotten as far as the rivers Tornea and Muonio (treaty of Fredrikshamn, Sept.
Corner of Finland and including the Aland islands.
Aland Islands >>
An unbroken ridge, extending from Stockholm to Hango in Finland, separates the Baltic basin proper from the depression between Sweden and the Aland Isles, to which the name Aland Haf has been given.
North of the Aland Haf a ridge defines the southern edge of another depression, the Bothnian Sea, which in turn is separated from the most northerly division, the Gulf of Bothnia, by a ridge across the narrow Quarken or Kvarken Strait.
During very severe winters the Aland Sea is covered with thick ice available for traffic. The south part of the Gulf of Bothnia is covered with ice every winter along the coasts, but rarely, if ever, in its central part.