He was succeeded by Akbar II., who lived similarly under the shadow of British protection.
The banks of the confluent rivers aid completely commands the navigation of both streams. Within the fort are the remains of a splendid palace, erected by the Emperor Akbar, and once a favourite residence of his.
Akbar died in 1605, in his sixty-third year.
ABUL FAZL, wazir and historiographer of the great Mogul emperor, Akbar, was born in the year A.D.
At a conference (December 23) with the Dost's son, Akbar Khan, who had taken the lead of the Afghans, Sir W.
Akbar the Great, the real founder of the Mogul empire as it existed for two centuries, was the contemporary of Queen Elizabeth of England.
She lies buried by the side of her husband at Lahore, whither the seat of government had been moved by Jahangir, just as Akbar had previously transferred it from Delhi to Agra.
The mosque at Fatehpur-Sikri possesses in its great southern gateway, built by Akbar in the second half of the 16th century, the masterpiece of IndoSaracenci architecture.
In the reign of the emperor Akbar the mines of Panna produced diamonds to the amount of Ioo,000 annually, and were a considerable source of revenue, but for many years they have not been so profitable.
In 1595 Sultan Murad, son of the emperor Akbar, besieged Ahmednagar, and was bought off by the formal cession of Berar.
In 1530 it became the residence of Shere Shah the Afghan, and forty-five years later was recovered by the emperor Akbar after sustaining a siege of six months.
The maharaja bahadur of Darbhanga, a Rajput, whose ancestor Mahesh Thakor received the Darbhanga raj (which includes large parts of the modern districts of Darbhanga, Muzaffarpur, Monghyr, Purnea and Bhagalpur) from the emperor Akbar early in the 16th century, is not only the premier territorial noble of Behar but one of the greatest noblemen of all India.
In 1196 Gwalior was captured by Mahommed Ghori; it then passed into the hands of several chiefs until in 1559 Akbar gained possession of it, and made it a state prison for captives of rank.
To this place the emperor Akbar, with his empress, performed a pilgrimage on foot from Agra in accordance with the terms of a vow he had made when praying for a son.
The district was ravaged by Timur in 1399, and thenceforward nothing is heard of it till the time of Akbar, when it formed part of the Delhi empire and so continued undisturbed, save for occasional raids, so long as the power of the Moguls survived intact.
Ultimately it was returned to its former owners, but the Mahommedans considered it desecrated, and it has never since been used as a place of worship. Allahabad (Illahabad) was the name given to the city when Akbar built the great fort.
The victories of the Delhi emperors, Akbar, Shah Jahan and Aurangzeb, crushed the rest.
The buildings of interest in the town are a palace, built by Akbar, called the Lal Kila or the Red Fort, and the Jama Masjid or Great Mosque, built by Ali Khan, one of the Farukhi dynasty, in 1588.
Between it and Peshawar intervenes the Khyber Pass, and between it and Kabul the passes of Jagdalak, Khurd Kabul, &c. The site was chosen by the emperor Baber, and he laid out some gardens here; but the town itself was built by his grandson Akbar in A.D.
On the opposite side of the river is the village of Khairabad, with a fort, also erected by Akbar according to some, or by Nadir Shah according to others.
In 1527, after a strenuous resistance, the fort was captured by Baber and with the surrounding country passed under the sway of the Moguls, being included by Akbar in the province of Agra.
Under the Mahommedan rule diamonds were a distinct source of state revenue; and Akbar is said to have received a royalty of £80,000 a year from the mines of Panna.
In this strange faith Akbar himself was the prophet, or rather the head of the church.
A few prisoners, mostly women, children and officers, were considerately treated by the orders of Akbar Khan.
The principal one, as the inscription intimates, is Pariswanath, or Parswanath, carved in the reign of the emperor Akbar; the black one has the date of 1651 inscribed.
In the reign of Akbar the chiefs of Bikanir were esteemed among the most loyal adherents of the Delhi empire, and in 1570 Akbar married a daughter of Kalyan Singh.
After revolting against his father Jahangir, as the latter had revolted against Akbar, he succeeded to the throne on his father's death in 1627.
Fn3 The stories of Khitai as a Christian empire, which led the Jesuits at the court of Akbar to despatch Benedict Goes in search of it (1601), did, however, suggest to Jerome Xavier, their chief, that the country in question "was the Cathay of Marco Polo, and its Christian king the representative of the famous Prester John" - a jumble of inaccuracy.
The Akbar Shah was originally a stone of 116 carats with Arabic inscriptions engraved upon it; after being cut down to 71 carats it was bought by the gaikwar of Baroda for £35,000.
Under the Mogul empire, as organized by Akbar the Great, the share of the state was fixed at one-third of the gross produce of the soil; and a regular army of tax-collectors was permitted to intervene between the cultivator and the supreme government.
To complete this sketch of India at the time of Baber's invasion it remains to say that an independent Mahommedan dynasty reigned at Ahmedabad in Gujarat for nearly two centuries (from 1391 to 1573), until conquered by Akbar; and that Bengal was similarly independent, under a line of Afghan kings, with Gaur for their capital, from 1336 to 1573.
Humayun died by an accident in 1556, leaving but a circumscribed kingdom, surrounded on every side by active foes, to his son Akbar, then a boy of only fourteen years.
For the first seven years of his reign Akbar was perpetually engaged in warfare.
Akbar was then the undisputed ruler of a larger portion of India than had ever before acknowledged the sway of one man.
The total land revenue received by Akbar amounted to about 161 millions sterling.
Comparing the area of his empire with the corresponding area now under the British, it has been calculated that Akbar, three hundred years ago, obtained 152 millions where they obtain only 131 millions - an amount representing not more than one-half the purchasing power of Akbar's 151 millions.
As regards his military system, Akbar invented a sort of feudal organization, by which every tributary raja took his place by the side of his own Mogul nobles.
Starting from the broad ground of general toleration, Akbar was gradually led on by the stimulus of cosmopolitan discussion to question the truth of his inherited faith.
No attempt was made to measure the fields or calculate the out-turn, as had been done by Akbar, and is now done when occasion requires in the British provinces; but the amount payable was fixed by reference to what had been paid in the past.
The emperor Akbar is said to have prohibited it by law, but the early British rulers did not dare so far to violate the religious customs of the people.
Macnaghten was treacherously murdered at an interview with the Afghan chief, Akbar Khan, eldest son of Dost Mahommed.
He left this retreat on the 5th of April 1842, and was immediately killed by the adherents of Dost Mahommed and his son Akbar Khan.
JELLALADIN MAHOMMED AKBAR,' 'AKHBAR or AKBER (1542-1605), one of the greatest and wisest of the Mogul emperors.
Akbar succeeded his father in 1556 under the regency of Bairam Khan, a Turkoman noble, whose energy in repelling pretenders to the throne, and severity in maintaining the discipline of the army, tended greatly to the consolidation of the newly recovered empire.
Bairam, however, was naturally despotic and cruel; and when order was somewhat restored, Akbar found it necessary to take the reins of government into his own hands, which he did by a proclamation issued in March 1560.
When Akbar ascended the throne, only a small portion of what had formerly been comprised within the Mogul empire owned his authority, and he devoted himself with great determination and success to the recovery of the revolted provinces.
The religion thus founded, however, having no vital force, never spread beyond the limits of the court, and died with Akbar himself.
Sher Shah was killed at the storming of Kalinjar (1545), and Humayun, returning to India with Akbar, then only thirteen years of age, defeated the Indo-Afghan army and reoccupied Delhi (1555).
When Akbar, however, was succeeded by Jahangir the guru aided the latter's son Khusru to escape with a gift of money.
After the invasion of Mahmud of Ghazni the city fell into insignificance till the reign of Akbar; and thenceforward its history merges in that of the Jats of Bharatpur, until it again acquired separate individuality under Suraj Mal in the middle of the 18th century.
JAHANGIR, or Jehangir (1569-1627), Mogul emperor of Delhi, succeeded his father Akbar the Great in 1605.
It afterwards formed a part of the Mahommedan kingdom of Gaur, and was subsequently subjugated by Akbar, who declared it to be a part of the Delhi empire.
It derives its name from an iron pillar, supposed to have been originally set up at the beginning of the 13th century in commemoration of a victory, and bearing a later inscription recording the seven days' visit to the town of the emperor Akbar in 1598.
Subsequently, in the time of Akbar, Dhar fell under the dominion of the Moguls, in whose hands it remained till 1730, when it was conquered by the Mahrattas.
The Akbar Nameh, or Book of Akbar, as Abul Fazl's chief literary work, written in Persian, is called, consists of two parts - the first being a complete history of Akbar's reign and the second, entitled Ain-iAkbari, or Institutes of Akbar, being an account of the religious and political constitution and administration of the empire.
The fort of Attock was built by the emperor Akbar in 1581, on a low hillock beside the river.
Humayun was driven as an exile into Persia; and, while he was flying through the desert of Sind, his son Akbar was born to him in the petty fortress of Umarkot.
The clans were finally either conquered, overawed or conciliated by Akbar - all except the distant Sisodhyia clan, which, however, submitted to Jehangir in 1616.
Their missionaries were received at the court of Akbar, and Benedict Goes, a native of the Azores, was despatched on a journey overland from Agra to China.
They never subjugated the south, but the empire which they founded in the north was for about two centuries, under such rulers as Akbar and Shah Jehan, one of the most brilliant which Asia has seen.
After ten years of fighting, Humayun was driven out of India and compelled to flee to Persia through the desert of Sind, where his famous son, Akbar the Great, was born in the petty fort of Umarkot (1542).
If the history of Akbar were confined to this long list of conquests, his name would on their account alone find a high place among those which mankind delights to remember.